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2021.04.24 國際新聞導讀-美國承認土耳其人對亞美尼亞人種族滅絕、美國表示不承認以色列生存權者不能參加巴勒斯坦大選、阿富汗女性前景未卜、以色列右派黨魁Naftali Bennet有意組閣

外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
2021-04-23
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2021.04.24 國際新聞導讀-美國承認土耳其人對亞美尼亞人種族滅絕、美國表示不承認以色列生存權者不能參加巴勒斯坦大選、阿富汗女性前景未卜、以色列右派黨魁Naftali Bennet有意組閣 拜登對亞美尼亞種族滅絕的認可表明土耳其的影響力正在減弱 美國前任總統出於擔心激怒北約關鍵盟友而避免使用“種族滅絕”一詞。 通過KRISTINA JOVANOVSKI /針對媒體線 2021年4月23日19:40 土耳其總統塔伊普·埃爾多安(Tayyip Erdogan)在2020年12月14日於土耳其安卡拉舉行的內閣會議後的新聞發布會上發表講話 (照片來源:總統媒體辦公室/通過路透社提供的淘汰) 廣告 分析人士告訴《媒體熱線》,美國總統喬·拜登對奧斯曼帝國對亞美尼亞人大規模殺戮的種族滅絕的預期認可是土耳其對華盛頓影響力減弱的跡象。 有關The Media Line的更多故事,請訪問themedialine.org 據引述未具名官員的美國報導,預計拜登將於週六亞美尼亞種族滅絕紀念日認可亞美尼亞人被土耳其種族滅絕。 土耳其外交部長告訴當地新聞頻道,此舉將損害與美國的關係。 土耳其主要的反對黨共和黨在周四發表的聲明中表達了這一觀點,譴責拜登可能採取的行動。 “這是不公正,不正當和不適當的。我們不接受這種特徵。”該黨在聲明中說。 許多人崇尚奧斯曼帝國的土耳其人接受亞美尼亞人被殺的說法,但長期以來不接受這頂種族滅絕罪的帽子。 伊斯坦布爾薩班奇大學政治學助理教授伯克·埃森說:“種族滅絕的認可將對土耳其政府造成很大的打擊。” 他說,拜登對土耳其總統雷傑普·塔伊普·埃爾多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)違反美國利益的政策感到不滿,並認為土耳其總統在處理COVID-19案件激增和本國經濟危機時不能做出過分強烈的回應。 與美國的關係對土耳其的經濟尤為重要,因為土耳其的經濟高度依賴外國投資。 兩國之間因土耳其對美國牧師安德魯·布倫森(Andrew Brunson)的拘留而在2018年發生外交爭端,導致華盛頓對安卡拉實施制裁,這使土耳其貨幣自由落體。 經濟學家們說,安卡拉與世界上最大的經濟體爭論的形像在經濟危機中起的作用比制裁本身更為重要。 埃森在接受《媒體熱線》採訪時說,考慮到前任總統避免使用種族滅絕一詞,這樣他們才不會使一個重要的北約盟國不安,對種族滅絕的承認將表明美土關係已陷入低迷。 自爭端以來,土耳其做出了許多決定,損害了與華盛頓的關係,包括對敘利亞的美國盟軍庫爾德部隊發動攻勢,併購買了先進的俄羅斯反導防禦系統S-400,這使安卡拉成為被趕出美國F-35聯合打擊戰鬥機計劃。 華盛頓美國進步中心國家安全和國際政策高級研究員艾倫·馬科夫斯基(Alan Makovsky)表示:“我認為,美土關係的惡化確實是在這裡造成了很大的不同。”國務院。 土耳其與伊拉克,伊朗和敘利亞接壤的地緣政治地位使其成為北約的寶貴盟友,其中包括建立了一個基地,該基地被美國用來對伊拉克和敘利亞的伊斯蘭國發動襲擊。 馬科夫斯基告訴《媒體熱線》,拜登承認亞美尼亞人的種族滅絕是種族滅絕的信號,這向土耳其發出信號,表明它沒有它認為的槓桿作用。 “這是一個有問題的關係。美國開始對自己的賭注進行對沖……人們仍然認為,[土耳其]在戰略上很重要,但我認為土耳其在美國的某些地區,包括在這一問題上,已經失去了否決權。 馬科夫斯基補充說,在美國國會通過一項承認種族滅絕表明死亡的決議之後,安卡拉缺乏強烈的反應。 拜登甚至在就任總統之前就表示,他將對埃爾多安採取強硬立場,並告訴《紐約時報》他將支持反對派。 自上任以來,即使土耳其總統試圖加強與西方盟友的關係,拜登也沒有與埃爾多安打過電話。 土耳其議會與主要反對黨的前成員艾坎·埃德米爾(Aykan Erdemir)告訴媒體熱線,土耳其可能會採取與承認種族滅絕的其他國家相同的行動,例如召回美國大使。 設在華盛頓的民主民主基金會基金會土耳其計劃的高級主任埃米爾(Erdemir)說,與美國的這種衝突將是短暫的,但受到埃爾多安(Erdogan)的歡迎。發揮他的民族主義基礎。 他說,參議院和眾議院在2019年都承認種族滅絕,這表明兩黨對埃爾多安的懷疑在美國已經變得如何。 他說:“最終,埃爾多安政府的政策使華盛頓孤立了土耳其。” “土耳其最終沒有朋友來鼓吹安卡拉在華盛頓的地位。” Biden’s recognition of Armenian Genocide shows Turkey’s fading influence Previous US presidents have avoided using the term ‘genocide’ out of fear of angering key NATO ally By KRISTINA JOVANOVSKI/THE MEDIA LINE APRIL 23, 2021 19:40 Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan speaks during a news conference following a cabinet meeting in Ankara, Turkey, December 14, 2020 (photo credit: PRESIDENTIAL PRESS OFFICE/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS) US President Joe Biden’s expected recognition of the Ottoman Empire’s mass killings of Armenians as genocide is a sign of Turkey’s waning influence over Washington, analysts told The Media Line. For more stories from The Media Line go to themedialine.org Biden is expected to make the recognition on Saturday, Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day, according to US reports, which cited unnamed officials. Turkey’s foreign minister told a local news channel that such a move would harm relations with the United States. That sentiment was echoed by Turkey’s main opposition party, The Republican People’s Party, in a statement released on Thursday, denouncing the possible move by Biden. “This is unjust, unwarranted and inappropriate. We do not accept this characterization,” the party said in its statement. Turkey, where many revere the Ottoman Empire, accepts that Armenians were killed but has long refuted equating the deaths with genocide. “Genocide recognition is going to be a large blow to the Turkish government,” said Berk Esen, an assistant professor of political science at Sabancı University in Istanbul. He says Biden has been angered by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s policies that went against US interests and believes the Turkish president can’t respond too strongly while he is dealing with a major spike in COVID-19 cases and an economic crisis in his country. Relations with the US are especially important to Turkey’s economy, which strongly relies on foreign investment. A 2018 diplomatic dispute between the two countries over Turkey’s detention of US pastor Andrew Brunson led to Washington placing sanctions on Ankara which sent Turkey’s currency into free fall. Economists said the image of Ankara arguing with the biggest economy in the world played more of a role in the economic crisis than the sanctions themselves. Esen told The Media Line that the recognition of genocide would show how low US-Turkish relations have sunk, considering previous presidents avoided using the term so that they would not upset an important NATO ally. Turkey has made a slew of decisions since the dispute that have harmed ties with Washington, including launching an offensive against US-allied Kurdish forces in Syria and purchasing an advanced Russian anti-missile defense system, the S-400s, which led to Ankara being kicked out of the US F-35 joint strike fighter program. “I think the deterioration in US-Turkish relations really is the big difference maker here,” said Alan Makovsky, a senior fellow for national security and international policy at the Center for American Progress in Washington, who previously worked on Turkish affairs at the US State Department. Turkey’s geopolitical position, bordering Iraq, Iran and Syria, has made it a valuable NATO ally, including by hosting a base which was used by the US to launch attacks against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. Makovsky told The Media Line that a Biden recognition of the Armenian deaths as genocide would be a signal to Turkey that it doesn’t have the amount of leverage it believed it did. “It’s a problematic relationship. The US is starting to hedge its bets a bit … people still see [Turkey] as important strategically but I think Turkey has lost its veto power in certain areas in the US, including on this issue,’ he said. Makovsky added that the lack of a strong reaction from Ankara after the US Congress passed a resolution to recognize the deaths as genocide showed there probably would be no major fallout from such a move. Even before he became president, Biden said he would take a tough line with Erdogan, telling The New York Times he would support the opposition. Since taking office, Biden has not held a phone call with Erdogan even as the Turkish president attempts to strengthen relations with his Western allies. Aykan Erdemir, a former member of the Turkish parliament with the main opposition party, told The Media Line that Turkey would likely act the same as it did to other countries which have recognized the genocide, such as by recalling the US ambassador. Erdemir, senior director of the Turkey program for the Washington-based Foundation for Defense of Democracies, said such a clash with the US would be short-lived but welcomed by Erdogan who could use the row to distract the public from the country’s domestic issues while playing to his nationalist base. He said the recognition of genocide by both the Senate and House of Representatives in 2019 showed how bipartisan skepticism of Erdogan has become in the US. “Ultimately, the Erdogan government’s policies have isolated Turkey in Washington,” he said. “Turkey ended up with no friends to advocate for Ankara’s position in Washington.” 美國告訴聯合國安理會,恐怖分子候選人不能參加巴勒斯坦大選 聯合國大使吉拉德·埃爾丹說:“允許否認以色列生存權的恐怖分子參加選舉。” 由TOVAH LAZAROFF 2021年4月23日08:38 哈馬斯駐加沙地帶的副領導人哈利勒·海亞(Hhalya al-Hayya)與其他代表一同抵達,為即將於2021年3月29日在加沙市舉行的議會選舉登記哈馬斯的名單。2021年3月29日拍攝的照片。 (照片來源:路透社/穆罕默德·薩勒姆) 廣告 美國告誡聯合國安理會在聯合國安理會通過的關於聯合國安理會的建議,不要允許那些不承認以色列或支持恐怖活動的巴勒斯坦政客,例如哈馬斯成員或解放巴勒斯坦人民陣線,參加即將舉行的巴勒斯坦大選。週四。 美國駐聯合國代表團的政治協調員羅德尼·亨特(Rodney Hunter)對聯合國安理會說:“我想感謝即將舉行的巴勒斯坦大選,我們認為這是巴勒斯坦人民必須決定的事情。” 亨特說:“美國和其他主要夥伴很早就清楚,民主進程的參與者必須接受先前的協議,放棄暴力和恐怖主義,並承認以色列的生存權。” 亨特在巴勒斯坦人為自2006年定於5月22日舉行的第一次立法會議選舉做準備時發表講話,其中必須填補132個席位。 拜登政府一直支持選舉,但在星期四,它恢復了四方和前布什政府過去舉行的那些選舉的一系列標準。四方由美國,聯合國,歐洲聯盟和俄羅斯組成。 來自哈馬斯和PFLP的候選人都在競選中參加競選,他們都支持針對以色列的暴力行為,但尚未意識到其生存權。 國務院發言人內德·普萊斯(Ned Price)迴避了有關哈馬斯參加週三選舉的問題,只說“我們對哈馬斯的立場是眾所周知的”。 他補充說:“在巴勒斯坦人民的選舉中,我不會接受任何假設。這取決於他們的決定。” 不到一天后,亨特在聯合國安理會上澄清了美國在此問題上的立場。 以色列美國和聯合國大使吉拉德·埃爾丹(Gilad Erdan)在向哈馬斯(安全理事會)談及哈馬斯(Hamas)舉行選舉的危險時談到了哈馬斯(Hamas)參加選舉的問題。 埃爾丹說:“我希望你至少能解決如果哈馬斯在即將舉行的選舉中增加權力並成為巴勒斯坦權力機構的正式組成部分,該機構將如何繼續與巴勒斯坦權力機構合作。” 埃爾丹說:“這是解決衝突方面最重要的問題。”他譴責成員國無視這一問題,而是將大部分精力集中在攻擊以色列上。 哈馬斯在2006年立法委員會選舉中贏得全民投票,此舉使與巴勒斯坦權力機構的關係複雜化,直到2007年加沙的哈馬斯政變為止,此舉給法塔赫帶來了痛苦的裂痕,一直未得到治愈。 此後,哈馬斯統治加沙,由法塔赫率領的巴勒斯坦權力機構負責西岸。以色列擔心選舉可能賦予西岸哈馬斯權力。 “拒絕以色列生存權的恐怖分子被允許參加選舉。哈馬斯的候選人名單包括賈馬爾·阿布·哈亞(Jamal Abu al-Hayja)等人進行了多次恐怖襲擊,納爾·巴爾古提(Nael Barghouti)是以色列監獄中服刑時間最長的囚犯之一而Tawfiq Naim是另一名被判有罪的恐怖分子,”埃爾丹說。 他引用了美國總統喬·拜登(Joe Biden)在2006年擔任參議員時的講話。“拜登在談到2006年《巴勒斯坦反恐怖主義法》時提到,哈馬斯的政治崛起提出了挑戰。哈馬斯甚至不能滿足四方提出的承認以色列的生存權,放棄暴力並接受以前所有一切的三個要求。以色列和巴勒斯坦之間達成的協議。”埃爾丹解釋說。 埃爾丹說:“哈馬斯獲准參加即將舉行的選舉,並有望增強其權力,但並沒有放棄恐怖這一事實,這應該令這個機構感到擔憂。這應該使所有人感到擔憂。” Terror candidates must not run in Palestinian elections, US tells UNSC "Terrorists who deny Israel's right to exist are being allowed to participate in the elections," said UN Ambassador Gilad Erdan. By TOVAH LAZAROFF APRIL 23, 2021 08:38 Khalil al-Hayya, Hamas's deputy leader in Gaza, arrives with other representatives to register Hamas's list for the upcoming parliamentary elections, in Gaza City March 29, 2021. Picture taken March 29, 2021. (photo credit: REUTERS/MOHAMMED SALEM) Advertisement The United States cautioned against allowing Palestinian politicians who do not recognize Israel or who support terrorist activity — such as members of Hamas or the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine — from running in the upcoming Palestinian elections when it addressed the United Nations Security Council on Thursday. "I want to acknowledge the upcoming Palestinians elections, which we believe are a matter for the Palestinian people to determine," the political coordinator for the US Mission to the UN Rodney Hunter told the UNSC. "The United States and other key partners have long been clear that participants in the democratic process must accept previous agreements, renounce violence and terrorism, and recognize Israel’s right to exist," Hunter said. Hunter spoke as the Palestinians prepare for their first Legislative Council election since 2006 set for May 22nd, in which 132 seats must be filled. The Biden administration has been supportive of the elections, but on Thursday it revived a set of criteria for those elections that had in the past been held by the Quartet and the former Bush administration. The Quartet is composed of the United States, the United Nations, the European Union and Russia. Candidates from Hamas and the PFLP, both of which support violence against Israel and have not recognized its right to exist, are running in the election. State Department spokesman Ned Price had ducked a question about Hamas participation in the elections on Wednesday, stating only that, "our position vis-a-vis Hamas is well known." He added, "I’m not going to entertain a hypothetical when it comes to elections for the Palestinian people. That’s up to them to decide." Less than one day later, at the UNSC, Hunter clarified the US position on the matter. Israel's US and UN Ambassador Gilad Erdan addressed the issue of Hamas' participation in the elections, when he spoke to the security council about the danger of Hamas running the election. "I hope that you will at least address how this institution will be able to continue to work with the Palestinian Authority if Hamas increases its power in the upcoming elections and becomes an official part of the Palestinian Authority," Erdan said. "This is the most important issue to address in regards to the conflict," Erdan said as he chastised the member states for ignoring the issue and focusing most of their energies instead on attacking Israel. Hamas has won the popular vote in the 2006 Legislative Council elections, a move that complicated relations with the PA until the 2007 Hamas coup in Gaza, which created a bitter rift with Fatah that has not been healed. Since then, Hamas has ruled Gaza and the Fatah led PA has been in charge of the West Bank. Israel is concerned that the elections could empower Hamas in the West Bank. "Terrorists who deny Israel's right to exist are being allowed to participate in the elections. Hamas’s list of candidates includes names such as Jamal Abu al-Hayja who carried out numerous terrorist attacks, Nael Barghouti, one of the longest-serving inmates in Israeli prison and Tawfiq Naim another convicted terrorist," Erdan stated. He referenced remarks US President Joe Biden made already in 2006 when he was a senator. "Biden mentioned in his remarks on the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism act in 2006, the political rise of Hamas presents a challenge. Hamas does not even come close to meeting the Quartet's three requirements of acknowledging Israel's right to exist, renouncing violence and accepting all previous agreements between Israel and the Palestinians," Erdan explained. "The fact that Hamas is being allowed to run in the upcoming elections and is predicted to increase its power" but has not renounced terror," should be worrying for this body. It should be worrying for everyone," Erdan stated. 阿富汗婦女考慮沒有美軍的未來 激進主義者和非政府組織想像阿富汗在9月11日之後的情況,當時最後一批美軍士兵離開阿富汗。 通過TARA KAVALER /針對媒體線 2021年4月22日23:37 Raziya Masumi在阿姆斯特丹的一次講故事會議上談到了自己在阿富汗的生活以及她提倡防止對婦女的暴力行為。 (照片來源:TORI EGHERMAN) 廣告 Raziya Masumi在伊朗生活到13歲為止。2002年,她和家人回到阿富汗時,他們發現了她所說的“噩夢”。沒有飲用水,也沒有電力,並且禁止婦女上學或獨立。當時她沒有想到自己最終會學習法律並在該國的人權委員會擔任律師,負責處理針對婦女的暴力案件。 有關The Media Line的更多故事,請訪問themedialine.org “我正在為自己的情況而苦苦掙扎。我當時正在與反對我的人打交道,我的工作使我受到死亡威脅。我們作為阿富汗的婦女,正在為我們的權利而奮鬥。這是我們的目標。”她告訴媒體專線。“我們認為,如果我們現在不採取任何措施,什麼都不會改變。” 這樣的變化之一是獲得一百萬個簽名,以支持將暴力侵害女性行為定為犯罪的法律,該法律最終將通過阿富汗議會。 Masumi希望在海牙應用科學大學學習國際和歐洲法的第一年,希望為歐洲的阿富汗建立法律研究所,然後回到阿富汗擔任國際法專業律師。 Masumi認為,美國總統喬拜登(Joe Biden)上周宣布,到9月11日,美國從阿富汗撤出最後2500名士兵是“一個大錯誤”。自美軍入侵阿富汗以來,今年已是20週年。這場戰爭已成為美國最長的戰爭。Masumi說撤軍將削弱阿富汗在婦女權利方面取得的進展,美國應該再停留兩年到三年,那時她認為阿富汗軍隊將能夠處理安全局勢。 “當前和平的目的是讓塔利班對阿富汗施加更多的極端宗教信仰。他們並不在乎我們大多數憲法所依據的人權標準。”她說。 “他們說女人不能當記者或老師。他們談論的是13歲的女孩沒有在公共場合唱歌,因為在伊斯蘭教中這是禁止的禮拜活動。” Masumi繼續說道。“情況日益惡化。即使在和談之後,我們也目睹了許多不明槍手襲擊目標的人權活動家。我們失去了才華橫溢的年輕人……他們是醫生,學生…………為阿富汗帶來了更美好的未來。” 職業女性也成為目標。例如,3月,新聞廣播台的三名女僱員在賈拉拉巴德被暗殺。 阿富汗和平國務部長薩伊德·薩達特·曼蘇爾·納德里(Saded Manator Naderi)的顧問阿迪拉·艾哈邁迪(Adila Ahmadi)則持不同看法。儘管她擔心自己國家的婦女前景如何,但她認為塔利班是和平協議以來最嚴重的一次。 “我本人擔心阿富汗婦女的未來,但這次塔利班已準備好達成和平協議。這是一個冒險的好機會,因此我們對此充滿希望。”她告訴媒體專線。 艾哈邁迪說,婦女的生活在很大程度上將取決於阿富汗政府在即將舉行的土耳其和談中的行動。週二,和談被進一步推遲到穆斯林齋月後。 “如果政府在婦女權利方面做出正確的決定,那麼在9月份美國撤軍之後猜測情況將會容易一些。但是,正如我們所觀察到的,塔利班的性質並未改變。她說:“阿富汗的想法可以追溯到20年前。” 艾哈邁迪說,為了不使婦女的成就倒計時,國際社會必須在和談中劃定一條“紅線”,以保護阿富汗的女性人口。 非政府組織和人權組織也對美軍撤離後阿富汗婦女的生活狀況感到擔憂。 人權觀察(HRW)婦女權利部門臨時聯合主任希瑟·巴爾(Heather Barr)表示:“我認為很難確切知道影響會是什麼,但我認為很明顯影響不會很好。” )告訴媒體專線。她說:“我認為您在聽阿富汗婦女和維權人士時看到的是,人們正在努力抱有希望,並團結在一起。” “但是籠罩在這些討論中的事實是,許多人都預測暴力將嚴重升級。” “這似乎很難避免;她說:“阿富汗的暴力事件已經非常嚴重,令人無法忍受,但這並不意味著事情不會變得更糟。” 巴爾說,人們還擔心塔利班力量的增加,在過去十年中,這種力量一直在穩定增長。塔利班領導下的婦女最關注的問題是教育和獲得保健服務。 “自2001年以來的一個重要變化是,塔利班至少支持女孩的初等教育。在實踐中,我們看到這不一定是必須遵循的做法-有些指揮官不允許這樣做,但是應允許小學教育是官方立場,”她說。 根據Barr的說法,大流行之前40%的小學和初中年齡的孩子都沒有上過學,儘管目前沒有有關數據的最新數據,但情況變得更糟。未上學的初中或12至15歲的兒童中約有66%是女性。 上週晚些時候,人權觀察呼籲各國從阿富汗撤軍以保持其對人道主義關切的財政承諾。 巴爾說,阿富汗政府預算的75%來自海外。這些捐助者通常在非政府機構(例如私人住宅)中為通常由非政府組織協調的公立學校和社區教育班提供資金。在家上課對女孩尤為重要。 國際美元還資助了由世界銀行領導的方案,該方案負責向阿富汗人民提供基本的保健服務。巴爾說,該計劃是一項6億美元的努力,始於2018年,計劃於明年結束。 巴爾說:“ 2022年6月30日,阿富汗人將不會停止需要醫療保健,而派遣部隊回國的國家不應有這樣的感覺:'這不再是我的問題。' 人們正在為出口而奔波。我希望那些正在決定是否提供援助的國家也將在決定是否接受難民,而且我們已經看到了大多數國家在這方面的記錄……但是他們應該做好準備阿富汗正在發生的危機將在他們自己的海岸上消失的事實。” 資金減少的後果已經顯現出來,例如在醫院中,他們不再擁有免費提供護理所需的物資。相反,免費的政府醫院強迫患者在接受治療之前先購買用品。婦女特別容易受到醫療保健削減的影響。 由於貧困率在過去十年中一直在上升,因此許多阿富汗人無法負擔醫療保健的費用。根據世界銀行的數據,由於大流行,目前的貧困率在61%至72%之間。2011年,該國的貧困率為38%。 瑪麗娜·勒格里(Marina LeGree)是美國非政府組織“登高阿富汗”的執行董事,該組織致力於通過以體育為中心的領導指導幫助女孩在阿富汗社會中進步。儘管她擔心阿富汗婦女的未來,但她也很樂觀。 她對媒體專線說:“我們和在阿富汗工作的許多非營利組織一樣,都長期存在,我們正在謹慎地觀察其影響,但我們沒有計劃去任何地方或改變我們的工作。” 。“我們經常聽到並在媒體上看到有關老年人的討論,是的,他們在大多數情況下都處於權力位置……我並不是在絞盡腦汁,說所有的希望都因為政治決定而喪失了。 ” 勒格里補充說:“阿富汗人本身俱有巨大的潛力和可能性。” “我們的女孩人數很少,但他們是阿富汗青年運動的一部分,他們不願意退步,所以不要忘記他們。” 她說,她的組織一直專注於額外的培訓,並告知女孩其權利和法律規定是什麼。 萊格里說,阿富汗婦女的未來不是外國軍隊可以決定的。 “這並不是說要撤出2500名士兵,突然之間,每一天到第二天一切都發生了巨大變化……戰鬥將繼續下去。這些女孩和婦女需要堅強,有韌性和聰明,並找到方法來繼續捍衛自己並爭取自己的權利。我認為他們會的。”她說。 她補充說:“從來沒有一種軍事解決方案能夠解決婦女權利不受尊重的問題。” Afghan women contemplate a future without US troops Activists and NGOs imagine what Afghanistan will be like after September 11, when the last US soldiers leave the country By TARA KAVALER/THE MEDIA LINE APRIL 22, 2021 23:37 Raziya Masumi talks about her life in Afghanistan and her advocacy to prevent violence against women during a storytelling meeting in Amsterdam. (photo credit: TORI EGHERMAN) Advertisement Raziya Masumi lived in Iran until the age of 13. When she and her family returned to Afghanistan in 2002, they found what she describes as a “nightmare.” There was no potable water and no electricity, and women were forbidden to go to school or to be independent. She could not have imagined then that she eventually would study law and serve as a lawyer with the country’s human rights commission, where she dealt with cases of violence against women. For more stories from The Media Line go to themedialine.org “I was struggling with my circumstances. I was dealing with people who were against me and I received death threats for my work. We, as women in Afghanistan, were fighting for our rights. This was our goal,” she told The Media Line. “We thought that if we don’t take a step right now, nothing is going to change.” One such change was getting a million signatures in support of a law criminalizing violence against females, which would eventually pass Afghan’s parliament. Now in her first year studying international and European law at The Hague University of Applied Sciences, Masumi hopes to establish a legal research institute for Afghanistan in Europe and then return to Afghanistan to work as lawyer specializing in international law. Masumi believes that it is a “big mistake” for the US to withdraw its last 2,500 troops from Afghanistan by September 11, a decision US President Joe Biden announced last week. This year marks the 20th anniversary since US troops invaded Afghanistan in what has become America’s longest war. Masumi says a withdrawal will erode the progress Afghanistan has made regarding women’s rights and that the US should stay another two years to three years, which is when she believes Afghan troops will be able to handle the security situation. “The purpose of the current peace is for the Taliban to exert more of their extremist religious beliefs over Afghanistan. They don’t care about human rights standards, which most of our constitution is based on,” she said. “They say women cannot be journalists or teachers. They talk about 13-year-old girls not singing in public because it is haram [forbidden] in Islam,” Masumi continued. “The situation is getting worse day by day. We witnessed many human rights activists targeted by unknown gunmen, even after the peace talks. We lost talented young people … they were doctors, students … helping bring about a better future for Afghanistan.” Professional women also have been targeted. In March, for example, three female employees of a news broadcast station were assassinated in Jalalabad. Adila Ahmadi, an advisor to Afghanistan’s State Minister of Peace Sayed Sadat Mansoor Naderi, sees things differently. While she is concerned about what the prospects are for women in her country, she believes the Taliban is the most serious it has ever been about a peace deal. “I myself fear for the future of women in Afghanistan, but this time the Taliban are ready for a peace deal. It’s a good opportunity to take the risk, so we are hopeful for that,” she told The Media Line. Ahmadi says that much of what life will be like for women will depend on the actions of the Afghan government in the upcoming peace talks in Turkey, which on Tuesday were further postponed until after the holy Muslim month of Ramadan. “If the government makes good decisions regarding women’s rights, then it will be a little easier to guess the situation after the US troop withdrawal in September. But, as we have observed, the Taliban’s nature hasn’t been changed. It’s difficult to handle the thought of Afghanistan going back 20 years,” she said. In order to not turn back the clock on women’s achievement, the international community must draw a “red line” in the peace talks that protects Afghan’s female population, Ahmadi says. NGOs and human rights groups also are concerned about what life will be like for women in Afghanistan after US troops leave. “I think it is hard to know exactly what the impact will be, but I think it is quite clear the impact is not going to be good,” Heather Barr, interim co-director of the women’s rights division at Human Rights Watch (HRW), told The Media Line. “I think what you see when you listen to Afghan women and activists, people are trying to be hopeful and pull together,” she said. “But looming over these discussions is the fact that many people are predicting a serious escalation of violence.” “That seems like it’s going to be hard to avoid; there’s already a very high and intolerable level of violence in Afghanistan but that doesn’t mean things couldn’t get worse,” she added. Barr says that there also is concern about increased Taliban power, which has grown steadily over the last ten years. The primary concerns for women under the Taliban involve education and access to health care. “One important change since 2001 is that the Taliban supports at least primary education for girls. We see in practice that this is not necessarily something followed – some commanders don’t allow it, but it is the official position that primary education should be permitted,” she said. According to Barr, 40% of primary school and lower secondary school-age children already were not in school before the pandemic and while there is no updated data on figures today, the situation has become worse. Some 66% percent of the lower secondary school-age children, or ages 12 through 15, not attending school are female. Late last week, HRW called on countries withdrawing their troops from Afghanistan to keep their financial commitments to humanitarian concerns. Barr says that 75% of the Afghan government’s budget comes from overseas. These donors help fund government schools and community-based education classes, usually coordinated by NGOs, that take place in informal settings such as a private home. Classes in homes are especially important for girls. International dollars also fund the World Bank-led program responsible for providing basic health-care services to the Afghan population. Barr says that the initiative is a $600 million effort that started in 2018 and is scheduled to end next year. “On June 30, 2022, Afghans are not going to stop needing health care and countries that have sent their troops home shouldn’t feel like: ‘That’s not my problem anymore,’” Barr said. “People are running for the exits. I hope the same countries that are deciding whether or not to give aid are also going to be deciding whether or not to accept refugees, and we’ve already seen what kind of a record most of them have on that … but they should prepare for the fact that the crisis that’s happening in Afghanistan will wash up on their own shores.” The consequences of decreased funding is already being seen, such as in hospitals that no longer have the supplies they need to provide care for free. Instead, free government hospitals are forcing patients to purchase supplies before they can receive treatment. Women are especially vulnerable to cuts in health care. Health care is a cost out of reach for many Afghans, due to a poverty rate that has been rising over the last decade. The poverty rate now stands at between 61% and 72% as a result of the pandemic, according to the World Bank. In 2011, the country’s poverty rate was 38%. Marina LeGree is executive director of Ascend Afghanistan, an American NGO that seeks to help girls advance in Afghan society through sports-focused leadership guidance. While she is worried about the future for women in Afghanistan, she also is optimistic. “We, like so many nonprofits that work in Afghanistan, are in it for the long haul and we are cautiously watching what the impact will be, but we have no plans to go anywhere or change what we do,” she told The Media Line. “We often hear about and see in the media discussions of old men and yes, they are, for the most part, in positions of power … I’m not wringing my hands and saying all hope is lost … because of a political decision.” “Afghans themselves have tremendous potential and possibility,” LeGree added. “Our girls are a small number, but they are part of a huge movement of Afghan youth that are not willing to take a step backwards, so let’s not forget about them.” She says that her organization has been focusing on additional training, as well as informing girls of what their rights are and what the law says. LeGree, however, says that the future for women in Afghanistan is not something that can be determined by foreign forces. “It’s not like 2,500 troops are going to be withdrawn and suddenly everything is dramatically different from one day to the next … the fight will go on. These girls and women need to be tough and resilient and smart and find ways to keep defending themselves and pushing for their rights. I think they will,” she said. She adds: “There was never a military solution that was going to fix this problem of women’s rights not being respected.” 猶太人和阿拉伯極端分子在耶路撒冷發生衝突,數十人受傷並被捕 當極右翼的猶太極端分子遊行進東耶路撒冷,高呼“死亡給阿拉伯人”時,數十人受傷並被捕。 通過SARAH BEN-修女 2021年4月23日14:03 當極右翼的猶太極端分子遊行進東耶路撒冷,高呼“死亡給阿拉伯人”時,數十人受傷並被捕。 抗議活動主要發生在耶路撒冷舊城的大馬士革門,那裡的阿拉伯青年在齋月齋戒結束時向警察投擲石塊和酒瓶。由極右翼的勒哈瓦組織領導的猶太人團體當天早些時候宣布,它將進軍大門,制止阿拉伯人,並提醒他們耶路撒冷屬於誰。 以色列警察在整個城市內部署,以解決人流,並試圖防止暴力。警察整夜的目標是使兩組盡可能彼此遠離。 警察成功地打破了一些抗議活動,事先警告了示威者(數百人),並開始將他們推向1號公路。 耶路撒冷郵報的一名記者證實,猶太示威者被推向耶路撒冷市政府大樓,而阿拉伯示威者則被引向薩拉赫丁街的方向。 警察部隊已開始分解抗議活動,並事先警告抗議者,並開始將他們推向1號公路。(來源:以色列警察) 阿拉伯青年通過在大馬士革門點燃煙花來打開夜晚,並大聲喊著“阿拉胡·阿赫巴爾”。以色列媒體同時報導,極右翼極端主義勒哈瓦組織的數百名猶太青年從賈法街沿錫安廣場的大門來到,大喊“死亡給阿拉伯人”和“復仇”。據N12報導,他們舉著標語“恐怖分子之死”。 大馬士革門的抗議者。(圖片來源:SETH J. FRANTZMAN) 緊張局勢加劇了扔瓶的情況,此時警察趕來中斷了戰鬥。 他們使用眩暈手榴彈對警察進行了人為封鎖,以防止發生任何暴力。同時,阿拉伯青年繼續向軍官投擲石塊和煙花。 最終,Lehava青少年闖入了警察的隊伍。 勒哈瓦(Lehava)負責人本·錫安·戈普斯坦(Ben-Zion Gopstein)說:“今晚我們來到這裡,是向任何其他人澄清:耶路撒冷是我們的!” 警察部隊最終成功地在兩組之間創造並維持了空間,目的是阻止抗議活動滲入舊城。 該郵報記者報導,一些阿拉伯人試圖到達猶太活動家,用石頭飛的過程中來回穿梭。幾人被拘留。 據《簡訊》報導,猶太示威者暴民試圖衝破警察的路障,並通過大馬士革門進入該市。 當警察開始試圖將抗議者驅逐出該地區時,大馬士革門附近的垃圾箱著火了。 2021年4月22日,在耶路撒冷舊城大馬士革門的抗議活動繼續進行時,大火燒毀了垃圾箱。(圖片來源:SETH J. FRANTZMAN) 衝突中有許多警察受傷。一名軍官被扔向他的石頭砸傷了頭部。 一名以色列警察在2021年4月22日發生暴力事件之後,在齋月期間的阿拉伯和猶太人抗議活動中,在耶路撒冷的阿拉伯和猶太抗議之夜被砸向他的石頭擊中。 賈法門(Jaffa Gate)在賈法街(Jaffa Street)逮捕了4個人,原因是他們襲擊了一個路人,該路人在人群中被發現之前就溜過了人群。 消息人士向《耶路撒冷郵報》證實,警方在抗議活動發生前夕搜查了汽車,並對活動附近的平民進行了徹底的安全檢查。安全部隊位於大馬士革門附近以及鎮中心其他地區。 數十名全副武裝的警務人員站在耶路撒冷中央路賈法街上,據說抗議者正沿著那條路聚集。 在Mahaneh Yehuda市場的街道上看到警馬小跑,而騎摩托車的人員則在輕軌上減速。 司機還報告了該地區的警察停下來搜查的情況。 勒哈瓦(Lehava)週三宣布,正計劃在繼續在聖殿山(Temple Mount)齋月服務期間進軍,以抗議最近一周對猶太人的暴力事件。 警察因在耶路撒冷的騷亂逮捕了50多人,有20名警察受傷。一些實例被拍攝並在線上傳。 暴力事件和公共騷亂的最近增加是由於民族主義緊張局勢的加劇,而齋月仍在阿拉伯部門繼續。 美國駐耶路撒冷大使館星期五發表聲明,對過去幾天的暴力事件表示關注。使館在阿拉伯文,希伯來文和英文推文中說:“我們希望所有負責任的聲音將促進煽動行為的結束,恢復平靜,並尊重耶路撒冷每個人的安全和尊嚴。” Dozens hurt and arrested as Jewish and Arab extremists clash in Jerusalem Dozens of people were injured and arrested as far-right Jewish extremists marched into east Jerusalem, chanting "Death to Arabs." By SARAH BEN-NUN APRIL 23, 2021 14:03 Play Video Jewish extremists and Arabs clash with police outside Jerusalem's Old City, April 22, 2021 (Thomson Reuters) Advertisement Dozens of people were injured and arrested late Thursday night as far-right Jewish extremists marched into east Jerusalem, chanting "Death to Arabs." The protests took place mainly at Damascus Gate in Jerusalem's Old City where Arab youth hurled rocks and bottles at police as the daily Ramadan fast came to an end. The Jewish group - led by the far-right Lehava organization - announced earlier in the day that it would march to the gate to stop the Arabs and remind them who Jerusalem belongs to. Israel Police deployed throughout the city to tackle the foot traffic and in an attempt to prevent the violence. The goal of the police throughout the night was to keep the two groups as far away from each other as possible. Police forces successfully broke up some of the protests, warning the protesters – numbering in the hundreds – beforehand, starting to push them towards Highway 1. A Jerusalem Post correspondent confirmed that the Jewish protesters were pushed toward the Jerusalem Municipality building, while the Arab protesters were directed in the direction of Salah a-Din Street. Police forces have begun to break up the protests, warning the protesters beforehand, starting to push them towards Highway 1. (Credit: ISRAEL POLICE) Arab youth opened the night by lighting fireworks at Damascus Gate, calling out "Allahu akhbar." At the same time, Israeli media reported, hundreds of Jewish youth from the far-right extremist Lehava organization arrived at the gate from Zion Square along Jaffa Street, yelling "Death to Arabs," and "Revenge." They held up signs that read "Death to terrorists," according to N12. Protesters at Damascus Gate. (Credit: SETH J. FRANTZMAN) The tension accumulated to an instance of bottle throwing, at which point the police arrived to break up the fight. Using stun grenades, they created a human blockade of police officers to prevent any violence. Meanwhile, Arab youth continued to throw stones and fireworks towards the officers. Eventually, the Lehava teens broke through the wall of cops. "We've come here tonight," Ben-Zion Gopstein, head of Lehava, said, "to clarify to anyone who thinks otherwise: Jerusalem is ours!" Police forces eventually succeeded in creating and maintaining space between the two groups, with the goal of stopping the protests from bleeding into the Old City. The Post correspondent reported that few Arabs tried to reach the Jewish activists, with stones flying back and forth in the process. Several were detained. Mobs of Jewish demonstrators tried to break through police barricades and enter the city through Damascus Gate, Kan News reported. As police began to attempt to clear the protesters out of the area, dumpsters were lit on fire near Damascus Gate. Fires burn through dumpsters as the protests at Damascus Gate in Jerusalem's Old City continue, April 22, 2021. (Credit: SETH J. FRANTZMAN) A number of policemen were injured in the clashes. One officer sustained injuries to his head from a rock that was thrown at him. One of the Israel Police officers who was hit by a stone being thrown at him during the night of Arab and Jewish protests in Jerusalem during Ramadan, following nights of violent incidents, April 22, 2021. (Credit: ISRAEL POLICE) Four individuals were arrested along Jaffa Street, by Jaffa Gate, for attacking a passerby, who slipped through the crowd before he could be identified. Sources confirmed to The Jerusalem Post that police searched cars and performed thorough security checks on civilians in the general vicinity of activity ahead of the protests, earlier in the evening. Security forces were positioned near Damascus Gate as well as in other areas in the center of town. Dozens of police officers, all fully armed, stood along Jaffa Street, a central road in Jerusalem along which protesters were reportedly gathering. Police horses were seen trotting along the street of Mahaneh Yehuda Market and officers on motorcycles were speeding down along the light rail tracks. Drivers reported police stop-and-searches in the region, as well. Lehava announced on Wednesday that it was planning a march while Ramadan services on the Temple Mount continue, to protest the recent violence exhibited towards Jews over the last week. Police arrested over 50 individuals for disturbances in Jerusalem and 20 officers were injured. Some of the instances were filmed and uploaded online. The recent increase in violent incidents and public disturbances are due to rising nationalistic tensions, while Ramadan continues in the Arab sector. The US Embassy in Jerusalem released a statement Friday expressing concern about the violence over the past few days. "We hope all responsible voices will promote an end to incitement, a return to calm, and respect for the safety and dignity of everyone in Jerusalem," the embassy said in a tweet in Arabic, Hebrew and English. 貝內特:“我已經開始進行談判以組建民族團結政府” 利庫德黨對貝內特作出回應,在聲明中說,貝內特希望不惜一切代價成為總理,包括以[組成]左翼政府為代價” 由CODY LEVINE 2021年4月23日20:16 納夫塔利·班尼特(Naftali Bennett) (照片來源:OURI KAHN) Yamina負責人 納夫塔利·本內特(Naftali Bennett)週五在臉書上表示,他已經開始與“變革集團”成員組成“國家統一政府”的談判。 貝內特在廣泛的帖子中寫道:“從我意識到內塔尼亞胡不打算選擇組建右翼政府的兩個選擇中的那一刻起,我就開始努力組建民族團結政府。” 據N12報導,耶什·阿迪德(Yesh Atid)負責人Yair Lapid證實,他和貝內特(Bennett)正在討論成立全國統一政府。 在帖子中,貝內特還批評了總理本傑明·內塔尼亞胡和宗教猶太復國主義黨領袖貝扎萊爾·斯莫特里奇,稱前者將以色列拖至第五次選舉,而後者則通過發起反對拉美運動來阻止右翼政府的成立。派對。 Yamina負責人闡述了他為成立全國統一政府進行談判辯護的確切理由,並編入了與成立右翼政府的目標相關的複雜性,他想擔任總理和反對第五次選舉的願望,他說對以色列來說將是一場災難。 內塔尼亞胡•本內特(Netanyahu Bennett)抨擊說,總理“不可能組建右翼政府,也沒有意願做任何要組建政府的事情。” 貝內特說,內塔尼亞胡的不願與新希望領導人吉迪恩·薩爾(Gideon Sa'ar)妥協,以換取總理職位,後者為首位。貝內特聲稱,另一種選擇是內塔尼亞胡(Ratan)在拉姆(Ra'am)的外部支持下擔心,因為政府的決定取決於阿拉伯政黨。 關於在變革集團下成立民族團結政府的困難,貝內特表示,他幾乎沒有信心實現這一點,他強調了變革集團各方之間的意識形態差異,以及它可能無法就對Yamina重要的問題達成共識,例如以色列對西岸的主權和司法制度改革。 貝內特表示,在組建全國統一政府的情況下,其工作重點將是通過預算,更新政府官僚機構的運作以及根據冠狀病毒大流行製定解決緊迫經濟問題的長期政策。 “以色列正處於極其困難的危機中。在每次危機中,都有很多人坐在露天看台上批評和解釋'為什麼不'很容易做到“正確”。甚至非常容易。還有一些進入舞台的人努力爭取提出解決方案,面對困難和不愉快的替代方案,並尋求解決方案。他們被稱為領導者。”貝內特總結說。 利庫德黨在回應貝內特在Facebook上的帖子時說,貝內特希望不惜一切代價成為總理,包括以[組成]左翼政府為代價” 內塔尼亞胡的政黨補充說,貝內特擔任變革集團總理將是左翼政府,右翼無花果葉。 Bennett: 'I have begun talks to form a national unity government' The Likud Party responded to Bennett, saying in a statement that Bennett wants to be prime minister at all costs, including at the cost of [forming] a left-wing government" By CODY LEVINE APRIL 23, 2021 20:16 Yamina head Naftali Bennett said on Friday via Facebook that he has entered negotiations to form a "national unity government" with members of the "change bloc." "From the moment I realized that Netanyahu did not intend to choose one of the two alternatives for forming a right-wing government, I began the effort to form a national unity government," Bennett wrote in the extensive post. Yesh Atid head Yair Lapid confirmed that he and Bennett are in discussions to form a national unity government, according to N12. In the post, Bennett also criticized Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Religious Zionist Party head Bezalel Smotrich, saying the former is dragging Israel to its fifth elections, while the latter is preventing the formation of a right-wing government by conducting a campaign against the Ra'am Party. The Yamina head laid out his exact reasoning for justifying negotiations to form a national unity government, weaving into the complexities associated with the goal of forming a right-wing government, his desire to be prime minister and opposition to a fifth election, which he says will be a disaster for Israel. Slamming Netanyahu Bennett said that the prime minister has "no possibility of forming a right-wing government and has no will to do whatever it takes to form a government." Netanyahu's unwillingness, Bennett said, was over compromising with New Hope leader Gideon Sa'ar in a rotational agreement for the premiership, with the latter going first. The other option, outside support from Ra'am, Netanyahu feared due to government decisions being dependent on an Arab party, Bennett claimed. On the difficulties of forming a national unity government under the change bloc, Bennett said he had little confidence it will be possible, highlighting the ideological differences between all the parties of the change bloc, and its likely inability to agree on issues important to Yamina, such as Israeli sovereignty in the West Bank and justice system reform. In the case that a national unity government is formed, Bennett said its priorities will be passing a budget, renewing operations in government bureaucracies, and creating long-term policies for pressing economic issues in light of the coronavirus pandemic. "Israel is in an extremely difficult crisis. In every crisis there are people sitting in the bleachers criticizing and explaining 'why not' It's easy to be "right." Even very easy. And there are those who enter the arena, strive to come up with solutions, face the difficult and unpleasant alternatives, and work for a solution. They are called leaders," Bennett concluded. The Likud Party responded to Bennett's Facebook post, saying in a statement that Bennett wants to be prime minister at all costs, including at the cost of [forming] a left-wing government" Netanyahu's party added that Bennett as prime minister of the change bloc would be a left-wing government with a right-wing fig leaf.

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