*第三季*【EP. 39】# 經濟學人新聞評論【日本經濟、失落的幾十年、日經平均指數、經濟泡沫化、皮爾卡登辭世、時裝設計、中國製造、微處理器芯片、美中科技戰、華為】

每日一經濟學人 LEON x The Economist
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🔴Wednesday December 30th 2020 🔵2020年12月30日星期三 1️⃣Japanese economy: the lost decades… 日本經濟:失落的幾十年… The Nikkei 225 index of Japanese shares surpassed 27,000 for the first time since 1991, as shares rallied after America’s stimulus bill was passed into law and a post-Brexit trade deal was agreed between Britain and the EU. Exactly 31 years ago, when Japan’s economy was at its bubbliest, the index peaked at almost 39,000. It fell to less than 8,000 in 2003. 在美國的 (經濟) 紓困法案通過以及英國與歐盟達成脫歐後的貿易協議後,日本股市上漲,日經平均指數 (日經225) 自 1991年以來首次突破 27,000點。在整整 31年前時,日本經濟處於泡沫化最嚴重的時刻,該指數 (在當時) 最高來到了近 39,000點,但在 2003年時跌至不到 8,000點。 2️⃣Pierre Cardin passed away 皮爾卡登辭世 Pierre Cardin, a French fashion designer, died aged 98 in Neuilly-sur-Seine near Paris. Mr Cardin was a pioneer in the development of fashion branding. He made his name in the 1950s with innovative clothes designs such as the bubble dress, and then expanded his branding empire to include a wide variety of products including cosmetics, perfumes and even car interiors. 法國時裝設計師皮爾卡登 (Pierre Cardin) 於 (法國) 巴黎西北郊的市鎮 - 塞納河畔納伊 (Neuilly-sur-Seine) 辭世,享年 98歲。皮爾卡登是時尚品牌發展的先驅。在 1950年代,他以新穎的服裝設計 (例如“泡泡衣”) 而聲名大噪,隨後也壯大了他的品牌帝國,並擴大了產品範圍,包含化妝品、香水,甚至是汽車內飾/裝。 3️⃣Bargaining chips: China’s chipmaking ambitions 討價還價的籌碼:中國製造晶片的野心 There is one vital product China’s manufacturers cannot make competitively: the microprocessor chips that power smartphones and cloud servers. In this arena America and its allies, especially South Korea and Taiwan, remain dominant. China is trying hard to catch up. America is trying hard to stop it. American officials learned a lot about global microprocessor supply chains during their recent campaign against Huawei, China’s telecoms-equipment giant, cutting it off from vital components. They can deploy that understanding against China’s nascent chipmaking industry. A few of the huge machines that make chips are manufactured exclusively in America by American companies, mini-monopolies that are ripe targets for new rules prohibiting sales to China. That would set Chinese efforts back years. There is a less aggressive alternative. America could try to build a consensus with its allies about the threat a thriving Chinese chipmaking industry would pose, thereby squeezing and shaping China’s technology ecosystem without losing all control. 為智慧型手機和雲端伺服器驅動的微處理器芯片是一項極為重要但中國製造商無法與業界匹敵的產品。美國以及其盟國 (尤其是南韓和台灣) 仍在這個領域佔據主導地位。雖然中國正努力追趕,但美國也極力阻止它。在最近為了切斷中國電信設備龍頭華為取得重要零組件的抵制政策中,美國官員們從全球微處理器的供應鏈學到了很多,並用以壓制中國新興的芯片製造業。部分製造芯片的大型機器由儼然是微型壟斷企業的美國公司獨家在美國生產,因此它們已成為「禁止對中國銷售 (含有美國技術的生產機器)」這項新規定欲鎖定之目標。此舉將使中國的努力倒退數年。不過呢,美國仍有較為溫和的替代方案,像是可以嘗試與其盟國就中國芯片製造業一旦興盛後所構成之威脅達成共識,從而在不失去所有控制權的情況下擠壓並形塑中國的科技生態系統。

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