cover

2021.08.06 國際新聞導讀-以色列伊朗就船隻劫持事相互言詞交鋒、東耶路撒冷巴勒斯坦人驅逐事以色列政論家反對、約旦有意君主立憲化、以色列民事婚姻應推行

外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
2021-08-05
22:57
0 comments
No Rating

Available Platforms

kkboxspotifyapplegooglerss

2021.08.06 國際新聞導讀-以色列伊朗就船隻劫持事相互言詞交鋒、東耶路撒冷巴勒斯坦人驅逐事以色列政論家反對、約旦有意君主立憲化、以色列民事婚姻應推行 在緊張局勢升級之際,甘茨說以色列準備在伊朗發動襲擊 但國防部長補充說,需要全球動員起來反對德黑蘭的惡意活動,因為伊斯蘭共和國與最近的海上襲擊有關 由伊曼紐爾·費邊今天,中午 12:59 國防部長本尼·甘茨出席在以色列南部埃什科爾地區舉行的會議。2021 年 7 月 13 日。(Flash90) 國防部長本尼·甘茨週四表示,隨著伊朗增強其核能力以及強硬派易卜拉欣·賴西宣誓就任總統,該地區緊張局勢加劇,該國準備直接與伊朗進行軍事接觸。 在接受 Ynet 新聞網站採訪時,當被問及以色列是否準備在必要時對伊朗發動襲擊時,甘茨簡單地回答說:“是的。” 儘管如此,他補充說,以色列仍專注於動員國際社會控制德黑蘭,“因為我們不能將伊朗僅僅視為以色列的問題,並免除世界其他地區的責任。 “世界需要與伊朗打交道,該地區需要與伊朗打交道,以色列也需要在這種情況下儘自己的一份力量,”他宣稱。 當被問及他是否指的是世界也參與對伊朗的軍事行動時,國防部長的回答是肯定的。 甘茨和外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德 (Yair Lapid) 週三點名了伊朗指揮官,他們說他們是上周無人機襲擊阿曼海岸附近一艘油輪的幕後黑手。 2021 年 8 月 3 日,拖船停泊在阿拉伯聯合酋長國富查伊拉港附近與以色列有聯繫的油輪 MT Mercer Street 旁邊。 (Karim Sahib/AFP) “伊斯蘭革命衛隊空軍司令阿米爾·阿里·哈吉扎德是該地區數十起使用無人機和導彈的恐怖襲擊的幕後黑手,”甘茨在耶路撒冷外交部舉行的一次簡報會上告訴聯合國安理會各國特使。“有史以來第一次,我還將揭露對發射自殺式無人機負有直接責任的人——他的名字是賽義德·阿拉賈尼,他是伊斯蘭革命衛隊無人機指揮部的負責人。” 以色列正在尋求召集聯合國安理會討論對 MT Mercer Street 油輪的致命無人機襲擊,以色列和國際社會將其歸咎於伊朗。這次襲擊殺死了一名英國人和一名羅馬尼亞人。 廣告 以色列人認為,這艘船之所以成為攻擊目標,是因為它是由一家以色列人擁有的公司經營的。伊朗否認參與了這次襲擊。 週二,以色列駐聯合國大使吉拉德埃爾丹致函安理會,要求其緊急處理海上事件,並譴責伊朗對默瑟街的無人機襲擊事件。 據報導,伊朗支持的部隊還控制了阿曼灣的一艘油輪,英國當局將其描述為“潛在的劫持事件”。這艘船最終被釋放。事件的細節尚不清楚。 週四,伊朗新總統易卜拉欣·賴西在議會宣誓就職之際,該地區局勢緊張。他因涉嫌在 1980 年至 1988 年伊朗和伊拉克之間的戰爭結束時參與大規模屠殺囚犯而被以色列稱為“德黑蘭的劊子手”。 2021 年 8 月 3 日,伊朗最高領袖阿亞圖拉·阿里·哈梅內伊 (Ayatollah Ali Khamenei) 在伊朗德黑蘭舉行的背書儀式上向新當選的總統易卜拉欣·賴西 (Ebrahim Raisi) 授予正式批准印章。 (伊朗最高領袖辦公室通過美聯社) 海上事件發生之際,伊朗與西方之間因德黑蘭與世界大國的核協議破裂而緊張局勢加劇,以及該地區的商業航運發現自己陷入了十字準線。 甘茨還在周三向特使的簡報中警告說,伊朗距離獲得足夠的濃縮鈾來製造核彈只有大約 10 週的時間。 廣告 美國總統喬拜登已表示他準備重返 2015 年核協議,並與伊朗進行間接談判,同時與該協議的其餘締約方英國、中國、法國、德國和俄羅斯進行正式會談。 以色列長期以來一直反對核協議,並反對拜登表明的重新加入該條約的意圖,而美國前總統唐納德特朗普已退出該條約。 Lazar Berman 和機構為本報告做出了貢獻。 Amid rising tensions, Gantz says Israel is ready to strike in Iran But defense minister adds that what is needed is global mobilization against Tehran for its malign activities, as Islamic Republic is linked to recent maritime attacks By EMANUEL FABIANToday, 12:59 pm Defense Minister Benny Gantz attends a conference in the Eshkol region, southern Israel. on July 13, 2021. (Flash90) Defense Minister Benny Gantz on Thursday said the country is prepared to engage militarily directly with Iran, amid rising tensions in the region as Iran increases its nuclear capabilities and as hardliner Ebrahim Raisi is sworn into the presidency. Asked in an interview with the Ynet news site whether Israel was ready to strike in Iran if need be, Gantz responded simply, “Yes.” Still, he added, Israel was focused on an effort to mobilize the international community to rein Tehran in, “because we can’t tag Iran as solely an Israeli problem and absolve the rest of the world from this issue. “The world needs to deal with Iran, the region needs to deal with Iran, and Israel also needs to do its part in this situation,” he declared. When asked if he was referring to the world also getting involved in military action against Iran, the defense minister answered in the affirmative. Gantz and Foreign Minister Yair Lapid on Wednesday named the Iranian commanders they said were behind last week’s deadly drone attack on an oil tanker off the coast of Oman. Tugboats are moored next to the Israeli-linked tanker MT Mercer Street, off the Fujairah port in the United Arab Emirates, on August 3, 2021. (Karim Sahib/AFP) “Amir Ali Hajizadeh, commander of the IRGC’s Air Force, is behind dozens of terror attacks in the region employing UAVs and missiles,” Gantz told envoys from countries on the United Nations Security Council during a briefing at the Foreign Ministry in Jerusalem. “For the first time ever, I will also expose the man who is directly responsible for the launch of suicide UAVs — his name is Saeed Ara Jani and he is the head of the IRGC’s UAV command.” Israel is seeking to convene the UN Security Council over the deadly drone attack on the MT Mercer Street oil tanker, blamed on Iran by Israel and the international community. The attack killed a Briton and a Romanian. ADVERTISEMENT Israeli believes the ship was targeted due to it being operated by a company owned by an Israeli. Iran has denied involvement in the attack. On Tuesday, Israel’s Ambassador to the UN Gilad Erdan sent a letter to the Security Council demanding it urgently address the incidents at sea and condemn Iran over the drone attack on the Mercer Street. The briefing came a day after Iranian-backed forces also reportedly took control of a tanker in the Gulf of Oman in an incident British authorities described as “a potential hijack.” The ship was eventually released. Details of the event remain unclear. Tensions in the region come as new Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi takes the oath before parliament Thursday. He has been branded by Israel as the “Hangman of Tehran” over his alleged involvement in the mass killings of prisoners toward the end of the 1980-1988 war between Iran and Iraq. Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, left, gives his official seal of approval to newly elected President Ebrahim Raisi in an endorsement ceremony in Tehran, Iran, August 3, 2021. (Office of the Iranian Supreme Leader via AP) The maritime incidents come amid heightened tensions between Iran and the West over Tehran’s tattered nuclear deal with world powers and as commercial shipping in the region has found itself caught in the crosshairs. Gantz also warned in the Wednesday briefing to the envoys that Iran was just some 10 weeks away from acquiring enough enriched uranium to build a nuclear bomb. ADVERTISEMENT US President Joe Biden has signaled his readiness to return to the 2015 nuclear deal and has engaged in indirect negotiations with Iran alongside formal talks with the agreement’s remaining parties, Britain, China, France, Germany and Russia. Israel has long been against the nuclear deal and opposes Biden’s stated intentions to reenter the treaty, which former US president Donald Trump backed out of. Lazar Berman and agencies contributed to this report. 甘茨威脅發動襲擊後,伊朗警告以色列:“不要考驗我們” 伊朗外交部發言人在推特上說:“任何針對伊朗的愚蠢行為都將得到果斷回應。” 通過AFP和TOI人員今天,晚上 10:01 2021 年 8 月 5 日星期四,在伊朗德黑蘭議會宣誓就任總統後,總統易卜拉欣·賴西(中)向記者揮手致意。(美聯社照片/Vahid Salemi) 伊朗外交部周四警告死敵以色列不要對伊斯蘭共和國採取軍事行動,此前這個猶太國家威脅德黑蘭發動致命的油輪襲擊。 “以色列政權又一次公然違反國際法律,現在公然以軍事行動威脅伊朗,”該部發言人賽義德·哈蒂布扎德 (Saeed Khatibzadeh) 在推特上說。 由著名的以色列億萬富翁 Eyal Ofer 管理的 MT Mercer Street 上週在阿曼附近遭到襲擊。 一名英國保安和一名羅馬尼亞船員在美國、英國和該船的運營商 Zodiac Maritime 稱似乎是無人機襲擊中喪生。 “我們明確表示:任何針對伊朗的愚蠢行為都將得到果斷回應,”哈蒂茲巴德說。“不要考驗我們,”他警告說。 週四早些時候,國防部長本尼·甘茨表示,以色列準備直接與伊朗進行軍事接觸。在接受 Ynet 新聞網站採訪時,當被問及以色列是否準備好在必要時對伊朗發動襲擊時,甘茨簡單地回答說:“是的。” 他補充說,儘管如此,以色列仍專注於動員國際社會控制德黑蘭,“因為我們不能僅將伊朗視為以色列的問題,並免除世界其他地區的責任。” 2021 年 8 月 3 日,拖船停泊在阿拉伯聯合酋長國富賈伊拉港附近與以色列相連的油輪 MT Mercer Street 旁邊。(Karim SAHIB / 法新社) “世界需要與伊朗打交道,該地區需要與伊朗打交道,以色列也需要在這種情況下儘自己的一份力量,”甘茨說。 廣告 週二,總理納夫塔利·貝內特 (Naftali Bennett) 表示,他的政府正在“努力招募全世界”以應對這次襲擊,但警告說“我們也知道如何單獨行動”。 “伊朗人需要明白,不可能和平地坐在德黑蘭,並從那裡點燃整個中東。一切都結束了,”貝內特說。 美國和以色列都表示,他們對 7 月 29 日事件的情報評估得出結論,一架伊朗無人機襲擊了這艘船,但伊朗否認了這一指控。 2021 年 6 月 22 日,伊朗當選總統易卜拉欣·賴西的支持者在伊朗東北部馬什哈德市的伊瑪目禮薩神殿歡呼。(Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh/ISNA 通訊社/法新社) 近幾個月來,有幾起伊朗船隻遭到襲擊的報導稱,德黑蘭與以色列有關聯。 今年 3 月,在地中海一艘貨船遭到襲擊後,伊朗表示正在“考慮所有選擇”,並將其歸咎於以色列。 4 月,德黑蘭稱其貨輪“薩維茲”號在紅海發生“爆炸”,此前媒體報導稱以色列將這艘船作為襲擊目標。 《紐約時報》報導稱,這是以色列對“伊朗早些時候對以色列船隻的襲擊”的報復性襲擊。伊朗還指責以色列破壞其核設施並殺害其一些科學家。 After Gantz threatens attack, Iran warns Israel: ‘Don’t test us’ ‘ANY foolish act against Iran will be met with a DECISIVE response,’ tweets the spokesman for the Iranian Foreign Ministry By AFP and TOI STAFFToday, 10:01 pm President Ebrahim Raisi, center, waves to journalists as he is surrounded by group of lawmakers after taking his oath as president at the parliament in Tehran, Iran, on Thursday, August 5, 2021. (AP Photo/Vahid Salemi) Iran’s Foreign Ministry warned arch-foe Israel on Thursday not to take military action against the Islamic Republic after the Jewish state threatened Tehran over a deadly tanker attack. “In another brazen violation of Int’l law, Israeli regime now blatantly threatens Iran with military action,” ministry spokesman Saeed Khatibzadeh said on Twitter. The MT Mercer Street, managed by prominent Israeli billionaire Eyal Ofer, was attacked off Oman last week. A British security guard and a Romanian crew member were killed in what the United States, Britain and the vessel’s operator Zodiac Maritime said appeared to be a drone strike. “We state this clearly: ANY foolish act against Iran will be met with a DECISIVE response,” Khatizbadeh said. “Don’t test us,” he warned. Earlier on Thursday, Defense Minister Benny Gantz said Israel is prepared to militarily engage directly with Iran. Asked in an interview with the Ynet news site whether Israel was ready to strike in Iran if need be, Gantz responded simply, “Yes.” Israel, he added, is nevertheless focused on an effort to mobilize the international community to rein Tehran in, “because we can’t tag Iran as solely an Israeli problem and absolve the rest of the world from this issue.” Tug boats are moored next to Israeli-linked tanker MT Mercer Street, off the Fujayrah port in the United Arab Emirates, on August 3, 2021. (Karim SAHIB / AFP) “The world needs to deal with Iran, the region needs to deal with Iran, and Israel also needs to do its part in this situation,” Gantz said. ADVERTISEMENT On Tuesday, Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said his government was “working on enlisting the world” in response to the attack, but warned “we also know how to act alone.” “The Iranians need to understand that it is impossible to sit peacefully in Tehran and, from there, ignite the entire Middle East. That is over,” Bennett said. Both the United States and Israel have said their intelligence assessments of the July 29 incident concluded that an Iranian drone attacked the ship, charges that Iran denies. Supporters of Iran’s President-elect Ebrahim Raisi cheer at the Imam Reza shrine in the city of Mashhad in northeastern Iran, on June 22, 2021. (Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh/ISNA News Agency/AFP) There have been several reported attacks on Iranian ships in recent months that Tehran has linked to Israel. In March, Iran said it was “considering all options” after an attack on a cargo ship in the Mediterranean that it blamed on Israel. In April, Tehran said its freighter Saviz was hit by an “explosion” in the Red Sea, after media reports said that Israel had targeted the ship. The New York Times reported that it was a retaliatory attack by Israel for “Iran’s earlier strikes on Israeli ships.” Iran has also accused Israel of sabotaging its nuclear sites and killing a number of its scientists. 為什麼我們去聯合國安理會討論東耶路撒冷 拆遷和拆遷的政治和道德後果遠遠超出了標準的房地產糾紛,政府沒有履行干預的職責 上週,作為 Ir Amim 的執行董事,我在聯合國安理會討論中東的會議上發言。我代表安全理事會接受了法國輪值主席國的邀請,介紹了東耶路撒冷前所未有的嚴峻局勢,約有 3 000 人的四個巴勒斯坦社區同時面臨大規模流離失所的迫在眉睫的威脅。 在這四個社區中——Sheikh Jarrah、Batan al-Hawa、Al Bustan 和 Al Walajeh——前兩個社區面臨著在國家的全力同謀和支持下運作的定居者團體的驅逐,而大規模的房屋拆遷則籠罩著後者二是政府政策的直接結果。 這四個社區共有約 300 個家庭,正處於用盡他們可用的有限法律程序方面的關鍵節點;他們流離失所的危險正在迅速逼近。 我並不是輕率地決定在聯合國安理會發表講話;我很清楚,對許多以色列人來說,出現在聯合國舞台上批評以色列政策是一條紅線。我在跨越溫和的哈雷迪和宗教猶太復國主義社會的宗教環境中長大,雖然我已經遠離這個世界,但我對他們的價值觀和信念並不陌生。同樣,我對許多其他以色列人呼籲國際社會干預以色列事務的立場並不陌生;但恰恰相反,我並沒有對以色列政府將通過自己的主動權並通過其掌握的眾多工具停止即將在東耶路撒冷進行的驅逐和拆毀抱有希望。 儘管如此,我認為在這個決定性的時刻,我們必須採取一切可能的步驟來防止驅逐東耶路撒冷的這四個社區。我們不能允許非合法化的話語邊緣化圍繞東耶路撒冷驅逐和拆除的影響以及防止它們發生的緊迫性的迅速對話。 除此之外,歷屆以色列政府都有責任防止驅逐和拆除巴勒斯坦家庭,但與他們的普遍立場相反,這不僅僅是以色列的內部問題。東耶路撒冷居民自 1967 年單方面吞併以色列以來一直生活在佔領之下,因此在這方面受到國際法的保護。因此,讓以色列政府了解並要求以色列政府對他們的處境負責,符合國際社會的利益。 以色列政府在其民主和法律機構的框架內將他們的行為視為合法——畢竟,“巴勒斯坦人難道不能完全訴諸法庭嗎?”;然而,東耶路撒冷的巴勒斯坦人沒有政治權利,也沒有參與支配他們生活的立法和決策過程的權力。 相反,正是這些法律允許通過定居者組織驅逐他們,這些組織聲稱巴勒斯坦人的房屋是 1948 年失去的猶太人財產,同時拒絕在同一場戰爭中失去財產的巴勒斯坦人的這一權利;以及這些阻止巴勒斯坦人獲得建築許可從而使他們面臨大規模拆遷的相同機構。在這些問題上,以色列的法律和體制框架甚至不能假裝是公正的——它本質上是歧視性的,準確地描述了佔領下生活的本質。 最近,最高法院在兩次徵求司法部長的法律意見時,對驅逐的態度發生了轉變——一次是關於 Sheikh Jarrah 的驅逐案件,一次是關於 Silwan 的 Batan al-Hawa。通過向司法部長(作為政府意見的代表)發表講話,法院表明了一種可能的理解,即這些案件具有超出標準房地產糾紛的深遠政治和道德影響。 有什麼可能說服以前對東耶路撒冷的類似驅逐案件作出裁決的法院改變其標準行動方案並將政府納入其決定?當然,其中一個原因是驅逐案件史無前例的累積,以至於它不再只 涉及 面臨風險的個別家庭,而是涉及 整個社區。我們期待法院在 al-Bustan、Silwan 和 al-Walaja 的大規模房屋拆遷問題上採取類似的立場。 然而,司法部長迄今為止一直沒有處理留給他的緊迫問題。他一再推遲就 Sheikh Jarrah 的驅逐提供法律意見,並最終宣布他不會干預。由於他沒有參與這個過程,他讓謝赫賈拉的居民比以往任何時候都更容易被迫流離失所。儘管如此,總檢察長預計將在 8 月 29 日之前就 Batan al-Hawa 的一個案件提交法律意見,這可能會影響涉及該社區 80 多個家庭的其他案件。我們只能希望這一次他會採取不同的行動。 在向聯合國安理會通報情況的同時,我們已經並將繼續在以色列內部和以色列人之間進行動員。我們一直在廣泛開展工作,以提高以色列公眾對東耶路撒冷局勢的認識;為保護這些面臨流離失所威脅的社區的持續鬥爭提供支持,並通過提交法律請願書和向政治決策者發表講話,遊說以色列各級法律和政治機構。 以色列外交部長亞伊爾·拉皮德 (Yair Lapid) 最近在對歐洲同行的講話中表示:“我們現在需要做的是確保不採取任何措施阻止未來和平的可能性。我們需要改善巴勒斯坦人的生活。無論是人道主義,我都會支持。” 拉皮德的聲明是在他努力恢復以色列與歐盟之間的關係的過程中做出的,該聲明也承認了國際社會及其創始機構的重要性。東耶路撒冷的驅逐和拆毀是對拉皮德兌現諾言的意圖的明確考驗。 正是在這種背景下,公安部長奧馬爾·巴列夫本週表示,每一項拆除東耶路撒冷或貝都因社區內蓋夫房屋的決定都應在執行之前提交給他。此外,本週在最高法院聽到的關於謝赫賈拉居民的討論可能表明法院處理驅逐的方法發生了變化。即使這還不夠,這些都是朝著正確方向邁出的一步,表明以色列政府和法律體系需要並且能夠防止東耶路撒冷四個社區面臨的這些驅逐和拆除。 它在他們手中。 Yudith Oppenheimer Why we went to the UN Security Council about East Jerusalem The evictions and demolitions have political and moral ramifications far beyond those of standard real-estate disputes and the government has failed its duty to intervene Last week, as the executive director of Ir Amim, I spoke before the United Nations Security Council at a session discussing the Middle East. Having accepted an invitation from the French presidency on behalf of the Security Council, I presented the dire and unprecedented situation in East Jerusalem whereby four Palestinian communities, numbering approximately 3,000 individuals, are simultaneously under imminent threat of mass displacement. Of these four communities – Sheikh Jarrah, Batan al-Hawa, Al Bustan, and Al Walajeh – the first two face eviction at the hands of settler groups operating with the full complicity and backing of the State, while mass home demolitions loom over the latter two as the direct result of government policy. The four communities, which together number about 300 families, are at a critical junction in terms of exhausting the limited legal proceedings available to them; the danger of their displacement is fast approaching. I did not take the decision to address the UN Security Council lightly; I am well aware that for many Israelis, appearing on the UN stage with criticism of Israeli policy is a red line. I was raised in a religious environment straddling the moderate Haredi and Religious Zionist societies, and although I have since grown apart from this world, I am no stranger to their values and convictions. I am likewise not unfamiliar with the position of many other Israelis on appealing to the international community to intervene in Israeli affairs; yet on the contrary, I have not lost hope that the Israeli government will, through its own initiative and via the numerous tools at its disposal, halt the impending evictions and demolitions in East Jerusalem. Nonetheless, I believe that at this decisive point in time we must take every possible step to prevent the expulsion of these four communities in East Jerusalem. We cannot permit the discourse of delegitimization to marginalize the burgeoning conversation around the implications of evictions and demolitions in East Jerusalem and the urgency required in preventing them. Beyond that, consecutive Israeli governments have had a responsibility to prevent evictions and demolitions of Palestinian families, yet contrary to their prevailing position, this is not merely an internal Israeli issue. The residents of East Jerusalem have lived under occupation since its unilateral annexation to Israel in 1967 and are therefore subject to the protection of International Law in this matter. Accordingly, it is in the interest of the international community to be made aware and hold the Israeli government accountable for their situation. The Israeli government presents their actions as legitimate within the framework of its democratic and legal institutions – after all, “don’t Palestinians have full access to the courts?”; however, East Jerusalem Palestinians are devoid of political rights and the power to participate in the legislative and policymaking processes which govern their lives. Rather, it is these very laws that allow for their evictions via settler organizations who claim Palestinian homes as Jewish property lost in 1948 while denying this right from Palestinians who lost property in the same war; and these same institutions that prevent Palestinians from obtaining building permits thereby exposing them to mass demolition. On these issues, Israel’s legal and institutional framework cannot even pretend to be impartial – it is inherently discriminatory and accurately characterizes the essence of life under occupation. Recently, the Supreme Court’s approach to evictions took a turn when it twice sought the legal opinion of the Attorney General – once with regard to the eviction cases in Sheikh Jarrah and once concerning Batan al-Hawa in Silwan. By addressing the Attorney General – as a representative of government opinion – the court demonstrates a possible understanding that these cases carry far-reaching political and moral ramifications beyond that of a standard real-estate dispute. What could have possibly convinced a court that had previously ruled on similar eviction cases in East Jerusalem to alter its standard course of action and include the government in its decision? Certainly, one of these reasons is the unprecedented accumulation of eviction cases to the extent that it no longer only involves individual families at risk, but rather entire communities. We are looking forward to the court adopting a similar stance on the issue of the mass home demolitions in al-Bustan, Silwan and al-Walaja. The Attorney General, however, has thus far refrained from dealing with the pressing issue that has been left to him. He repeatedly deferred providing his legal opinion on the evictions in Sheikh Jarrah and ultimately announced that he would not interfere. By not involving himself in the process, he has left the residents of Sheikh Jarrah more exposed than ever to forced displacement. Still, the Attorney General is expected to submit a legal opinion by August 29th in one of the cases in Batan al-Hawa, which will likely impact the additional cases involving 80 more families in this neighbourhood. We can only hope that this time he will act differently. Alongside briefing the United Nations Security Council, we have and continue to mobilize within Israel and among Israelis. We have been working extensively to raise awareness within the Israeli public of the situation in East Jerusalem; building support for the continuing struggle to defend these communities under threat of displacement, and lobbying across all levels of Israeli legal and political institutions by filing legal petitions and by addressing political decision-makers. In his recent remarks to his European counterparts, Israeli Foreign Minister Yair Lapid, stated, “What we need to do now is to make sure that no steps are taken that will prevent the possibility of peace in the future. We need to improve the lives of Palestinians. Whatever is humanitarian, I will be for it.” Lapid’s declaration, made amidst his efforts to renew the relationship between Israel and the European Union, is a declaration that also recognizes the importance of the international community and its founding institutions. The evictions and demolitions in East Jerusalem are a clear test of Lapid’s intentions to make good on his word. It is against this backdrop that Public Security Minister Omer Bar-Lev stated this week that every decision to demolish a house in East Jerusalem or in the Negev among the Bedouin community should be brought before him prior to being carried out. Furthermore, the discussion that was heard this week at the Supreme Court regarding the residents of Sheikh Jarrah possibly point to a change in the court’s approach to the evictions. Even if this isn’t enough, these are steps in the right direction and indicates that the Israeli government and the legal system need to and are able to prevent these evictions and demolitions facing the four communities in East Jerusalem. It is in their hands. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Yudith Oppenheimer is the executive director of Ir Amim 巴勒斯坦權力機構官員:達成協議將卡塔爾現金運往加沙,但挑戰依然存在 據報導,如果巴勒斯坦銀行向與哈馬斯有關的加沙人轉移資金,他們會擔心國際制裁 作者:AARON BOXERMAN和JACOB MAGID今天,晚上 10:33 巴勒斯坦權力機構一名高級官員周四表示,卡塔爾和巴勒斯坦權力機構已就一個廣泛的框架達成一致,再次將卡塔爾資金轉移到加沙地帶,但巴勒斯坦銀行正在阻止其實施。 巴勒斯坦權力機構部長艾哈邁德·馬伊達拉尼對《以色列時報》表示:“該協議存在,但銀行系統存在許多困難,需要進行一些調查才能解決。”並補充說,他已與卡塔爾加沙特使穆罕默德簽署了協議。艾瑪迪。 自2018年以來,卡塔爾向多哈的哈馬斯客戶統治的加沙提供了超過3億美元的補貼。以色列允許資金進入嚴密封鎖的沿海飛地,以換取其南部邊境的安靜。 卡塔爾項目為加沙唯一的發電廠和醫院提供燃料,以支持飛地受損的醫療保健系統。他們還為 10 萬個加沙貧困家庭和哈馬斯的公務員帶來了數億美元的現金。 恢復轉移卡塔爾現金已成為正在進行的重建加沙地帶談判的絆腳石,該談判現在因以色列和哈馬斯之間最近的戰鬥而受到重創。衝突升級後,以色列政客發誓不會再回到原狀。 “我們還在研究一種解決方案,讓加沙居民無需裝滿美元的手提箱即可獲得人道主義援助,”總理納夫塔利·貝內特 (Naftali Bennett) 在 7 月告訴內閣。 巴解組織高級官員艾哈邁德·馬伊達拉尼。(YouTube 屏幕截圖) Majdalani 透露的暫定協議引起了巴勒斯坦銀行的擔憂,據說如果他們的錢流向哈馬斯,這些銀行擔心會受到製裁。國際社會在很大程度上抵制恐怖組織並打擊與之打交道的金融機構。 一位熟悉談判的消息人士告訴以色列時報,繞過制裁的一種可能方法是通過加沙地帶的郵局而不是銀行轉移資金,這一建議已傳遞給巴勒斯坦權力機構官員。 廣告 然而,巴勒斯坦金融管理局局長 Firas Milhem 週四表示,他沒有被告知任何可能的協議,讓巴勒斯坦銀行轉移卡塔爾對加沙的補貼。 Milhem 毫不掩飾地提到了與哈馬斯打交道的潛在製裁,他說巴勒斯坦銀行必須遵守國際準則。 “金融管理局及其銀行致力於應用最佳國際標準,尤其是了解你的客戶規則,”米爾赫​​姆在一份聲明中說。 據馬伊達拉尼稱,卡塔爾已將多哈與拉馬拉之間的協議通知以色列當局。馬伊達拉尼說,該協議僅涉及支持貧困的加沙家庭,不包括向哈馬斯官員支付任何款項。 “我們沒有收到[以色列]的任何反對。現在我們只是在審查實施問題,”當被問及以色列是否反對擬議的機制時,馬伊達拉尼說。 以色列要求對通過該機制獲得支持的 100,000 個加沙家庭的名單進行更密切的監督,包括 Shin Bet 打擊它認為與哈馬斯有關聯的人的姓名的能力。 廣告 馬伊達拉尼沒有回答關於是否仍允許哈馬斯和卡塔爾確定資金接受者的問題。以色列可能會反對這樣的協議,認為這是至少一些哈馬斯官員間接接收付款的一種方式。 以色列國防部沒有回應就此事發表評論的請求,貝內特的發言人也沒有回應。 據 Kan 公共廣播公司稱,卡塔爾更願意將資金轉給巴勒斯坦權力機構——而不是聯合國——因為巴勒斯坦權力機構準備收取較少的管理費用。菅直人援引巴勒斯坦消息人士的話稱,拉馬拉的銀行準備只收取 1.5% 的利息,而聯合國則要求高達 8%。 PA official: Deal reached to send Qatari cash to Gaza, but challenges remain Palestinian banks reportedly concerned over international sanctions should they transfer funds to Gazans linked to Hamas By AARON BOXERMAN and JACOB MAGIDToday, 10:33 pm · · · · · Palestinians receive their financial aid as part of assistance given by Qatar, at a post office in Rafah, in the southern Gaza Strip, on October 6, 2020. (Abed Rahim Khatib/Flash90) Qatar and the Palestinian Authority have agreed on a broad framework to again transfer Qatari funds to the Gaza Strip, but Palestinian banks are holding up its implementation, a senior PA official said on Thursday. “The agreement exists, but there are a number of difficulties posed by the banking system, which will take some investigation to solve,” PA minister Ahmad Majdalani told The Times of Israel, adding that he had signed the agreement with Qatar’s Gaza envoy, Mohammad al-Emadi. Since 2018, Qatar has provided over $300 million in subsidies to Gaza, which is ruled by Doha’s Hamas clients. Israel allowed the funds into the tightly blockaded coastal enclave in exchange for quiet on its southern border. The Qatari projects funded fuel for Gaza’s only power plant and hospitals to shore up the enclave’s damaged healthcare system. They also brought in hundreds of millions in cash payments to both 100,000 poor Gazan families and to Hamas’s civil servants. Resuming the transfer of Qatari cash has emerged as a stumbling block in the ongoing negotiations to rebuild the Gaza Strip, now battered by the recent fighting between Israel and Hamas. Since the escalation, Israeli politicians have vowed that there will be no return to the status quo ante. “We are also working on a solution that will allow humanitarian assistance to the residents of Gaza without suitcases full of dollars,” Prime Minister Naftali Bennett told the cabinet in July. Senior PLO official Ahmed Majdalani. (YouTube screen capture) The tentative agreement revealed by Majdalani has prompted concern among Palestinian banks, which are said to be worried about being slapped with sanctions should their money go to Hamas. The international community largely boycotts the terror group and cracks down on financial institutions that deal with it. A possible way around the sanctions would be to transfer the money through post offices in the Strip, instead of the banks, a recommendation that has been passed along to PA officials, a source familiar with the negotiations told The Times of Israel. ADVERTISEMENT However, Palestinian Monetary Authority chief Firas Milhem said on Thursday that he had not been informed of any potential agreement for Qatar’s Gaza subsidies to be transferred by Palestinian banks. In a thinly veiled reference to the potential sanctions for dealing with Hamas, Milhem said that Palestinian banks were required to follow international guidelines. “The Monetary Authority and its banks are committed to applying the best international standards, especially know-your-customer rules,” Milhem said in a statement. According to Majdalani, Qatar has informed Israeli authorities of the agreement between Doha and Ramallah. Majdalani said the agreement solely relates to supporting impoverished Gazan families and does not include any payments to Hamas officials. “We have not received any opposition [from Israel]. Right now we are just examining the matter of implementation,” said Majdalani, when asked whether Israel had objected to the proposed mechanism. Israel has demanded closer oversight over the list of 100,000 Gazan families that receive support through the mechanism, including the ability of the Shin Bet to strike the names of those it deems to be affiliated with Hamas. ADVERTISEMENT Majdalani did not respond to a question on whether Hamas and Qatar would still be allowed to determine the funds’ recipients. Israel would likely object to such an accord, seeing it as a way for at least some Hamas officials to receive payments indirectly. Israel’s Defense Ministry did not respond to a request for comment on the matter, nor did a spokesperson for Bennett. According to the Kan public broadcaster, Qatar preferred to transfer the funds to the Palestinian Authority — rather than the United Nations — because the PA was prepared to charge less overhead. Ramallah’s banks were prepared to skim just 1.5 percent interest, while the UN demanded as much as 8%, Kan said, citing Palestinian sources. COVID:90% 接受以色列新藥治療的患者在 5 天內出院 以色列 COVID 藥物的 II 期試驗發現,30 名中度至重度患者中約有 29 名在幾天內康復。 作者:羅塞拉·特卡特 2021 年 8 月 5 日 22:24 一名患者接受了 Nadir Arber 教授的 EXO-CD24 COVID-19 治療。 (圖片來源:ICHILOV 發言人辦公室) 廣告 在希臘幾家醫院接受治療的 90 名冠狀病毒重症患者中,約有 93%使用由特拉維夫 Sourasky 醫療中心的一個團隊開發的新藥作為治療的 II 期試驗的一部分在五天或更短的時間內出院。 II 期試驗證實了 I 期試驗的結果,該試驗於去年冬天在以色列進行,30 名中度至重度患者中有 29 名在幾天內康復。 “這項研究的主要目標是驗證該藥物是否安全,”Nadir Arber 教授說。“直到今天,我們還沒有在兩組患者中發現任何明顯的副作用。” 該試驗在雅典進行,因為以色列沒有足夠的相關患者。首席研究員是希臘冠狀病毒專員 Sotiris Tsiodras 教授。 Arber 和他的團隊,包括 Shiran Shapira 博士,基於該教授研究了 25 年的名為 CD24 的分子開發了這種藥物,該分子天然存在於體內。 “重要的是要記住,20 名 COVID-19 患者中有 19 名不需要任何治療,”Arber 說。“在 5 到 12 天的窗口之後,大約 5% 的患者開始惡化。” 臨床惡化的主要原因是免疫系統過度激活,也稱為細胞因子風暴。對於 COVID-19 患者,該系統開始攻擊肺部的健康細胞。 “這正是我們的藥物所針對的問題,”他說。 CD24 是一種固定在細胞膜上的小蛋白質,它具有許多功能,包括調節細胞因子風暴的機制。 Arber 強調,他們的治療 EXO-CD24 不會影響整個免疫系統,而只是針對這一特定機制,幫助再次找到其正確的平衡。 “這是精準醫學,”他說。“我們很高興我們找到了一種工具來解決這種疾病的生理學問題。” “例如,類固醇會關閉整個免疫系統,”他進一步解釋說。“我們正在使用身體的內源性機制平衡細胞因子風暴的部分,這意味著身體本身提供的工具。” Arber 指出,這種治療的另一個突破性元素是它的遞送。 “我們正在使用外泌體,這是一種源自細胞膜的非常小的囊泡,負責它們之間的信息交換,”他說。 “通過設法將它們準確地運送到需要的地方,我們避免了許多副作用,”他補充道。 該團隊現在已準備好啟動研究的最後階段。 “儘管治療的第一階段的結果很有希望,但在將結果與接受安慰劑的患者進行比較之前,沒有人可以確定任何事情,”他說。 大約 155 名冠狀病毒患者將參加這項研究。其中三分之二將服用藥物,三分之一服用安慰劑。 該研究將在以色列進行,如果該國的患者數量不夠,也可能在其他地方進行。 “我們希望在年底前完成它,”Arber 說。 如果結果得到證實,他發誓可以相對快速且低成本地提供治療。 “此外,成功可能為治療許多其他疾病鋪平道路,”他總結道。 COVID: 90% of patients treated with new Israeli drug discharged in 5 days The Phase II trial for an Israeli COVID drug saw some 29 out of 30 patients, moderate to serious, recover within days. By ROSSELLA TERCATIN AUGUST 5, 2021 22:24 A PATIENT is administered Prof. Nadir Arber’s EXO-CD24 COVID-19 treatment. (photo credit: ICHILOV SPOKESPERSON'S OFFICE) Advertisement Some 93% of 90 coronavirus serious patients treated in several Greek hospitals with a new drug developed by a team at Tel Aviv’s Sourasky Medical Center as part of the Phase II trial of the treatment were discharged in five days or fewer. The Phase II trial confirmed the results of Phase I, which was conducted in Israel last winter and saw 29 out of 30 patients in moderate to serious condition recover within days. “The main goal of this study was to verify that the drug is safe,” Prof. Nadir Arber said. “To this day we have not registered any significant side effect in any patient from both groups.” The trial was conducted in Athens because Israel did not have enough relevant patients. The principal investigator was Greece’s coronavirus commissioner, Prof. Sotiris Tsiodras. Latest articles from Jpost Arber and his team, including Dr. Shiran Shapira, developed the drug based on a molecule that the professor has been studying for 25 years called CD24, which is naturally present in the body. “It is important to remember that 19 out of 20 COVID-19 patients do not need any therapy,” Arber said. “After a window of five to 12 days, some 5% of the patients start to deteriorate.” The main cause of the clinical deterioration is an over activation of the immune system, also known as a cytokine storm. In case of COVID-19 patients, the system starts attacking healthy cells in the lungs. “This is exactly the problem that our drug targets,” he said. CD24 is a small protein that is anchored to the membrane of the cells and it serves many functions including regulating the mechanism responsible for the cytokine storm. Arber stressed that their treatment, EXO-CD24, does not affect the immune system as a whole, but only targets this specific mechanism, helping find again its correct balance. “This is precision medicine,” he said. “We are very happy that we have found a tool to tackle the physiology of the disease.” “Steroids for example shut down the entire immune system,” he further explained. “We are balancing the part responsible for the cytokine storms using the endogenous mechanism of the body, meaning tools offered by the body itself.” Arber noted that another breakthrough element of this treatment is its delivery. “We are employing exosomes, very small vesicles derived from the membrane of the cells which are responsible for the exchange of information between them,” he said. “By managing to deliver them exactly where they are needed, we avoid many side effects,” he added. The team is now ready to launch the last phase of the study. “As promising as the findings of the first phases of a treatment can be, no one can be sure of anything until results are compared to the ones of patients who receive a placebo,” he said. Some 155 coronavirus patients will take part in the study. Two-thirds of them will be administered the drug, and one-third a placebo. The study will be conducted in Israel and it might be also carried out in other places if the number of patients in the country will not suffice. “We hope to complete it by the end of the year,” Arber said. If the results are confirmed, he vowed that the treatment can be made available relatively quickly and at a low cost. “In addition, a success could pave the wave to treat many other diseases,” he concluded. 支付哈馬斯工資延遲了卡塔爾為加沙提供資金 一位高級外交消息人士周四告訴耶路撒冷郵報,哈馬斯的薪水推遲了卡塔爾恢復對加沙的資助。 作者:LAHAV HARKOV , TOVAH LAZAROFF 2021 年 8 月 5 日 21:55 巴勒斯坦哈馬斯武裝分子參加 2021 年 5 月 22 日在加沙城舉行的反以色列集會 (圖片來源:路透社/穆罕默德·塞勒姆) 廣告 一位高級外交消息人士周四告訴耶路撒冷郵報,哈馬斯的薪水推遲了卡塔爾恢復對加沙的資助。 消息人士稱,以色列已經有一份經批准的收件人名單,並已檢查其中沒有一個是恐怖分子,而是教師或工程師。 然而,支付他們的渠道是通過巴勒斯坦權力機構,它不想向與哈馬斯有關聯的任何人支付工資。 此前五月份11天的加沙戰爭,被稱為城牆的操作監護人,以色列允許卡塔爾定期30000000 $現金支付加沙,這已經到困難家庭和哈馬斯官員的工資。卡塔爾還支付了發電廠的燃料費用。 來自 Jpost 的最新文章 跳過 Ad 前總理本雅明·內塔尼亞胡經常被指責通過允許卡塔爾向加沙轉移現金來在加沙邊境購買平靜。戰後,納夫塔利·貝內特總理堅持 “手提箱現金” 不能再進入加沙。 他原則上同意,一旦制定出適當的機制,卡塔爾就可以恢復付款。 一位資深外交消息人士證實,部分資金將通過郵政銀行分配給貧困家庭。 加沙發電廠的燃料付款也已恢復。此外,卡塔爾已承諾幫助資助重建加沙。 卡塔爾資助機制是恢復加沙邊界沿線平靜的重要組成部分。這也是埃及促成以色列和哈馬斯之間停火的努力的一個組成部分,以防止另一輪暴力。 哈馬斯堅稱,薪金必須是這筆交易的一部分,有時甚至威脅說,如果不恢復資金,將恢復對以色列的暴力。 加沙邊界沿線的局勢仍然緊張。Kerem Shalom 的商業十字路口和 Erez 的步行十字路口尚未達到戰前水平。加沙漁區尚未完全恢復到五月戰爭之前設定的 15 海裡。 以色列將限制定為 12 海裡,然後將其減少到 6 海裡,並在本周初恢復到 12 海裡。 本周初,外交部宣布了一系列加沙姿態。以色列外交部表示,截至週日,以色列允許“用於協助國際社會在加沙的食品、水、藥品和漁業領域項目的設備和貨物已獲准進口”。 “除了批准從以色列向加沙地帶進口電氣和農產品,以及從加沙地帶向以色列出口金屬廢料之外,”它解釋說。 此外,以色列已同意“居住在加沙的巴勒斯坦人將被允許通過艾倫比過境點出國”,只要他們符合要求的標準,外交部說。 還決定根據批准的標準,居住在加沙的巴勒斯坦人將被允許通過艾倫比過境點出國旅行 然而,外交部指出,只要加沙邊界保持平靜,這些步驟就會繼續存在。 聯合國官員警告說,在加沙經濟危機的同時,巴勒斯坦權力機構在西岸的經濟狀況也很糟糕。 貝內特也對幫助西岸巴勒斯坦人的經濟項目持開放態度,只要它符合以色列的安全需求。 總理認為改善巴勒斯坦人的生活質量是帶來更大平靜的一種方式。 與此同時,該外交消息人士稱“善行無懈可擊”,該消息人士指出,貝內特作為總理做出的第一個決定之一:向巴勒斯坦權力機構提供 100 萬劑 COVID-19 疫苗,以換取原定於 9 月或 10 月抵達拉馬拉的鏡頭。巴勒斯坦人首先同意接受疫苗,但在公眾壓力下拒絕了。 消息人士哀嘆巴勒斯坦人“為自己製造問題,我們被[國際社會]要求為此付出代價。[巴勒斯坦特警]殺害[抗議者]尼扎爾·巴納特,我們能做些什麼?但在經濟形勢下,這確實讓我們擔憂,我們可以嘗試在經濟上讓他們的生活更輕鬆。” Payment of Hamas salaries delays Qatar funding for Gaza Payment of Hamas salaries has delayed the resumption of Qatari funding for Gaza, a senior diplomatic source told The Jerusalem Post on Thursday. By LAHAV HARKOV, TOVAH LAZAROFF AUGUST 5, 2021 21:55 Palestinian Hamas militants take part in an anti-Israel rally in Gaza City May 22, 2021 (photo credit: REUTERS/MOHAMMED SALEM) Advertisement Payment of Hamas salaries has delayed the resumption of Qatari funding for Gaza, a senior diplomatic source told The Jerusalem Post on Thursday. Israel already has an approved list of recipients and has checked that none of the names on it are terrorists but are teachers or engineers, for example, the source said. The channel for paying them, however, is through the Palestinian Authority, which does not want to pay salaries to anyone affiliated with Hamas. Prior to the 11-day Gaza war in May, known as Operation Guardian of the Walls, Israel allowed Qatar to make regular $30 million cash payments to Gaza, which had gone to needy families and salaries of Hamas officials. Qatar also paid for fuel for the power plant. Latest articles from Jpost Top Articles READ MORE Israeli airstrikes against Lebanon area dramatic shiftin policy Former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu was often accused of buying calm along the Gaza border by allowing Qatar to transfer cash to Gaza. In the aftermath of the war, Prime Minister Naftali Bennett has insisted that “suitcases of cash” can no longer enter Gaza. He has agreed in principle that Qatar can resume its payments once an appropriate mechanism is worked out. The funds will partly be distributed to poor families through postal banks, a senior diplomatic source confirmed. Payments for fuel for the Gaza power plant have also resumed. In addition, Qatar has pledged to help fund the reconstitution of Gaza. The mechanism for Qatari funding is an important part of the restoration of calm along the Gaza border. It is also an element of the Egyptian efforts to broker a ceasefire between Israel and Hamas that would prevent another round of violence. Hamas has insisted that salaries must be part of this deal and at times has even threatened to resume violence against Israel if the funding is not resumed. The situation along the Gaza border remains tense. The commercial crossing at Kerem Shalom and the pedestrian one at Erez have yet to operate at prewar levels. The Gaza fishing zone has not been fully restored to the 15 nautical miles set prior to the May war. Israel has set the limit at 12 nautical miles, then reduced it to six, and at the start of this week restored it to 12. At the start of the week, the Foreign Ministry announced a series of Gaza gestures. As of Sunday, Israel allowed the entry to Gaza of “equipment and goods to assist projects by the international community in Gaza in the fields of food, water, medicine and fisheries have been approved for importation,” the Foreign Ministry stated. “This in addition to the approval of the importation of electrical and agricultural products from Israel to the Gaza Strip, as well as the export of metal waste from the Gaza Strip to Israel,” it explained. In addition, Israel has agreed that “Palestinians residing in Gaza would be allowed to travel abroad via the Allenby crossing” as long as they meet the required criteria, the Foreign Ministry said. It was also decided that subject to approved criteria, Palestinians residing in Gaza would be allowed to travel abroad via the Allenby crossing The Foreign Ministry noted, however, that these steps would remain in place only as long as the Gaza border remained calm. UN officials have warned that alongside a Gaza economic crisis, the PA economy is in dire shape in the West Bank. Bennett is also open to economic projects to help Palestinians in the West Bank, as long as it is coherent with Israeli security needs. The prime minister views improving the Palestinians’ quality of life as a way to bring greater calm. At the same time, the diplomatic source said “no good deed goes unpunished,” and the source pointed to one of the first decisions Bennett made as prime minister: to give the Palestinian Authority a million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine in exchange for shots that were supposed to arrive in Ramallah in September or October. The Palestinians first agreed to receive the vaccines, but then rejected them after public pressure. The source lamented that the Palestinians “make problems for themselves and we’re asked [by the international community] to pay for it. What can we do about [Palestinian special police] killing [protester] Nizar Banat? But with the economic situation, it does concern us and we can try to ease their lives economically.” 約旦將在十年內成為完全民主國家 皇家委員會討論賦予政黨權力的三階段計劃 作者:DAOUD KUTTAB/媒體行 2021 年 8 月 5 日 18:33 本月早些時候,約旦國王阿布杜拉二世在美國眾議院議長南希佩洛西的歡迎下在華盛頓的美國國會大廈發表講話。 (圖片來源:路透社/伊麗莎白·弗蘭茨) 廣告 約旦 哈希姆王國將在未來 10 年內成為完全憲政的民主國家,由議會黨派選擇政府。 負責改革約旦選舉和政黨法的 92 人皇家委員會一直在為民主化準備長達十年的路線圖。 在現行製度下,君主任命和罷免政府,下議院僅限於批准、否決或修改立法,幾乎沒有立法權,國王任命上議院成員。 該委員會的一位高級成員告訴媒體專線,正在閉門討論的計劃需要三個階段才能達到英國或瑞典享有的那種君主立憲制。 “我們的想法是,在第一階段,30% 的議會席位將分配給成熟的全國性政黨。黨代表將在下一輪議會選舉中達到 60%,到第三輪,該國所有 100% 的議會席位將來自政黨,”該委員會成員說。 “目前沒有關於參議院或國王議院的討論,它們的席位應該是[下議院]的一半。目前約旦下議院有130個席位,如果皇家委員會的建議得到 阿卜杜拉國王的 接受,預計這個數字將增加到150個,”該專員繼續說道。 逐漸變化的是老式的阿卜杜拉二世。早在 2011 年,當包括約旦在內的阿拉伯世界正在經歷改革浪潮時,國王本人認為,任何政治變革“都應該循序漸進,並符合國家的利益和安全。後半部分至關重要。” 在 2011 年 6 月 12 日的演講中,阿卜杜拉強調了“一方面是必要的民主變革與可實現的變革之間的區別,另一方面是混亂和不正當 [sedition] 的風險。” 具有諷刺意味的是,目前的委員會成立的部分原因是對高級人物的指控,其中包括國王的同父異母兄弟,前王儲哈姆澤以及國王的前知己巴塞姆·阿瓦達拉(Bassem Awadallah),後者現在是沙特的顧問王儲穆罕默德·本·薩勒曼。 皇家委員會的成員似乎採用了漸進的方法。 國家立憲黨秘書長艾哈邁德·舒納克告訴媒體,根據國王的指示,導致議會民主的政治進程需要分階段進行。 “也許我們需要一兩輪選舉,其中有 40 個政黨席位,以便約旦公眾能夠接受這一變化。稍後我們可以轉向一個可以建立政府並監督其工作的議會,”他說。 負責修改黨法的小組委員會負責人 Adnan Sawaeer 告訴媒體,必須在希望在議會中有更多黨員的人和希望地方議員控制下議院的人之間找到平衡。 “我們正在努力建立一個對婦女、政黨和青年友好的議會。這將是一項全新的法律,將允許大學生參與政治舞台和政黨政治,”薩維爾說。 目前大學生的投票率特別低。 雖然 10 年改革進程得到普遍支持,但也有反對者對政治改革意願的力量持懷疑態度。 人權活動家、該國公民社會運動的領導者內達爾·曼蘇爾告訴媒體專線,約旦人幾乎沒有理由相信改變會真正發生。 “人們不相信有強烈的改革意願。他們覺得談論漸進式改革是在爭取時間。這令人失望。為什麼約旦人不能立即享受他們的全部權利?為什麼我們需要多年才能成為一個民主國家?” 他問。 “我們為什麼要再等10年?事實是,在過去的20年裡,改革沒有發生任何事情;為什麼該系統在未來幾年會有所不同? 約旦憲法稱該國的政治制度為議會君主制,但除了 1957 年的短暫時期外,該國一直由一位君主管理,他可以選擇政府並能夠解散政府和解散議會,”曼蘇爾說。 該國的人口統計分為東岸約旦人和巴勒斯坦裔約旦人,但議會席位分配大大偏向東岸銀行家。為婦女和包括基督徒和切爾克斯人在內的各種族群保留了一小部分配額。貝都因人在議會席位分配方面也很突出。 Jordan to become a full democracy within a decade Royal commission discussing three-phase plan to empower political parties By DAOUD KUTTAB/THE MEDIA LINE AUGUST 5, 2021 18:33 JORDAN’S KING ABDULLAH II speaks after being welcomed by US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi to the US Capitol in Washington earlier this month. (photo credit: REUTERS/ELIZABETH FRANTZ) Advertisement The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is set to become a fully constitutional democracy where the parliamentary parties choose the government within the next 10 years. For more stories from The Media Line go to themedialine.org A 92-person royal commission charged to reform Jordan’s election and party laws has been preparing a decade-long road map for democratization. Under the current system, the monarch appoints and can dismiss the government, the lower chamber of the legislature is limited to approving, rejecting or amending legislation, with little power to initiate laws, and the king appoints the members of the upper house. The plans being discussed behind closed doors call for three phases to reach the kind of constitutional monarchy that the United Kingdom or Sweden enjoy, a senior member of the commission told The Media Line. “The idea is that in the first phase, 30% of the parliamentary seats will be dedicated to fully-fledged, nationwide political parties. Party representatives will go up to 60% in the next round of parliamentary elections and by the third round, all 100% of the country’s parliamentary seats will come from political parties,” the commission member said. “There is no talk at present about the Senate or king’s chamber, which is supposed to have half as many seats [as the lower house]. At present Jordan’s lower house has 130 seats and it is expected that the number will rise to 150 if the recommendation of the royal commission is accepted by King Abdullah ,” the commissioner continued. The gradual change is vintage Abdullah II. Back in 2011, when the Arab world including Jordan was experiencing a wave of reform, the king himself argued that any political change “should be done gradually, and in accordance with the interests and security of the nation. It is this latter part that is crucial.” In his June 12, 2011 speech, Abdullah emphasized the “difference between the required democratic transformations and achievable ones on the one hand, and the risks of chaos and fitnah [sedition] on the other.” Ironically the current commission was established in part as a result of the allegations of sedition against high-ranking figures who included the king’s half-brother the former Crown Prince Hamzeh along with a former confidant of the king, Bassem Awadallah, now an adviser to Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. The members of the royal commission appear to have adopted the gradual approach. Ahmad Shunnaq, the secretary-general of the National Constitutional Party, told The Media Line that according to the king’s directive, the political process that would lead to a parliamentary democracy needs to be carried out in phases. “Maybe we need one or two rounds of elections in which there are 40 party-based seats in order for the public in Jordan to be able to swallow this change. Later we can move to a parliament that can establish a government and oversee its work,” he said. Adnan Sawaeer, the head of the subcommittee charged with changing the party law, told The Media Line that balance must be found between those who want more party members in parliament and those who would prefer local parliamentarians controlling the lower house. “We are working hard on creating a parliament that is friendly to women, parties and youth. It will be a totally new law that will allow university students to participate in the political arena and in party politics,” Sawaeer said. Voter turnout is currently especially low among university students. While there is general support for the 10-year reform process there are opponents who are skeptical of the strength of the will for political reform. Nedal Mansour, a human rights activist and a leader in the country’s civil society movement, told The Media Line that there is little reason for Jordanians to believe that change will actually happen. “People are not convinced that there is a serious will for reform. They feel that they are buying time by talking about gradual reform. This is disappointing. Why can’t Jordanians immediately enjoy their full rights? Why do we need years to become a democratic state?” he asked. “Why should we wait another 10 years? The fact is that nothing has happened in terms of reform in the past 20 years; why will the system be any different in the coming years? Jordan’s constitution calls the country’s political system a parliamentary monarchy, but except for a short period in 1957 the country has been run by a single monarch who chooses the governments and is able to dismiss the government and dissolve the parliament,” Mansour said. The country’s demographics are split between East Bank Jordanians and Jordanians of Palestinian origin, but the seat distribution in parliament is greatly slanted in favor of the East Bankers. A small quota is reserved for women and various ethnic communities including Christians and Circassians. Bedouins are also given prominence in parliamentary seat distribution. 現在民事婚姻 大多數以色列人希望國家停止剝奪數十萬公民結婚的權利——這個政府甚至可能做出改變 2021 年 8 月 1 日,在東京舉行的 2020 年夏季奧運會藝術體操男子器械決賽中,以色列選手阿爾喬姆·多爾戈皮亞特 (Artem Dolgopyat) 獲得自由體操金牌后慶祝。(美聯社照片/Natacha Pisarenko) · 以色列的“換屆政府”已經帶來了一些變化:其成員彬彬有禮,總理及其候補者的行為不像自以為是宇宙中心的獨裁者。但兩個月後,有人問:根本性的變化在哪裡? 政府最近通過了國家預算。這糾正了以色列在可怕的經濟危機最嚴重的時候無人運作的特殊情況。這是非常重要的,並傳達了受歡迎的理智,但這不是系統性的變化。 有人會說,政府意識形態的多樣性阻礙了系統性變革。在巴勒斯坦問題上也是如此:在公眾輿論動搖到足以推翻一個認為分治勢在必行的政府之前,對以色列人來說,約旦河西岸的佔領將不得不變得更加痛苦。但在困擾該國的第二個問題的所有方面,情況並非如此,那就是宗教和國家。 每個尋求變革的經理都知道最好從正確、合乎邏輯、流行和可能的變革開始。而這樣的候選人存在,就在我們眼前:公證婚姻。 婚姻是一項基本權利。大多數人會同意在某些情況下拒絕它是合理的 - 對未成年人、近親等。但以色列走得更遠。 · 它拒絕與任何想要與其他宗教的成員結婚的人結婚,即使該州是許多宗教公民的家園。 · 它拒絕與不被拉比視為猶太人的猶太人結婚。 · 它拒絕與因無神論或任何其他原因反對宗教婚禮的人結婚。 上述群體要么根本不結婚,要么在國外結婚並希望內政部承認他們的婚姻,要么接受類似婚姻的法律合同,試圖將類似的權利正式化,但未經官方承認為“婚姻”。這似乎不對。 維持現狀的辯護者會爭辯說,“婚姻”實際上是一種宗教結構。這讓人想起美國保守派的論點,即根據定義,婚姻是一男一女的結合;女同性戀和男同性戀社區拒絕了這一點,堅持認為言論是有後果的,並爭辯說必須看到正義——他們贏了。 在以色列,國家實際上是在告訴其公民,婚姻純屬宗教事務。但這並不能反映大多數人的想法。 儘管幾乎沒有任何宗教情感,我還是結婚了,我當然不尋求拉比的認可,因為它被來自相當嚴格的東正教猶太人流的極端主義官僚統治,這是世界其他猶太人中的少數。這種觀點在以色列的許多世俗猶太人中很常見。 本週,隨著故事的興起,這個問題得到了鮮明的說明。 2021 年 8 月 1 日星期日,在東京舉行的 2020 年夏季奧運會藝術體操男子器械決賽中,以色列選手阿爾喬姆·多爾戈皮亞特 (Artem Dolgopyat) 獲得自由體操金牌后慶祝。(美聯社照片/Natacha Pisarenko) 以色列首位奧運體操冠軍。他是足夠的猶太人,在 12 歲時從烏克蘭移民,有足夠的猶太人在軍隊服役,也有足夠的猶太人在東京自豪地佩戴大衛之星。他為以色列帶來了極大的榮譽,並讓國歌“Hatikva”以及著名的關於“猶太靈魂”的詩句在奧運會上歷史上第二次演奏。但他不是猶太人,不能在以色列結婚,因為只有他的父親是猶太人,這讓拉比及其東正教官員不高興。 以色列有成百上千的人有同樣的問題,如果祖先沒有在更寬容和理性的時代從裂縫中溜走,還有更多人會加入他們的行列。這是成年人口的很大一部分。這是國家早期尷尬妥協的結果,當時哈雷迪姆並沒有像今天這樣主宰宗教機構。在目前的情況下,這似乎不合邏輯。 發達國家中很少有國家賦予宗教如此壟斷婚姻的權利。甚至伊朗也沒有這樣做(它有對婚姻有管轄權的民事法庭,儘管伊斯蘭規則確實廣泛適用,例如要求所有年齡段的新娘都必須獲得父親的許可)。 這種情況給大眾帶來痛苦,給所有人帶來恥辱,並為以色列的敵人提供彈藥。它幫助那些詆毀國家為神權國家的人。那些聲稱猶太人只是一個宗教而不是一個民族,因此不配擁有一個國家的人會受到影響。它間接地是給 BDS 運動的禮物,它會愛以色列被摧毀。 以色列人認為這是什麼好主意?答案似乎並不多。一項又一項民意調查顯示,大約四分之三的絕大多數人(在這片分裂的土地上很少見)歡迎引入公證婚姻選項。這樣的舉動會很受歡迎。 這也是可能的。在聯盟的右翼政黨中,世俗主義的以色列貝特努會渴望這樣做,而負責任的民族主義新希望不會阻撓。總理納夫塔利·貝內特 (Naftali Bennett) 的亞米納黨可能會因為害怕激怒哈雷迪姆而搖擺不定(他們肯定會這樣做,即使他們對猶太儀式的壟斷,以及對保守派和改革派猶太人的敵意,現在仍然存在);但考慮到貝內特和即將上任的世俗主義總理亞伊爾拉皮德之間的聯繫,亞米娜的立場是模糊的。 這樣的舉動將使本傑明·內塔尼亞胡的利庫德集團面臨艱難的選擇,要么支持如此明顯正確的改革,要么因為害怕哈雷迪政黨而反對改革,如果沒有哈雷迪政黨,利庫德集團或多或少注定要反對。他們可能會反對它,激怒他們自己的許多支持者,並為選民提供一些明確的信息。 在以色列建立民事婚姻將糾正一個真正荒謬的局面,並表明“更迭政府”名副其實。 Civil marriage now Most Israelis want the state to stop denying hundreds of thousands of citizens the right to marry – and this government might even be able to make the change Artem Dolgopyat of Israel celebrates after winning the gold medal on the floor exercise during the artistic gymnastics men's apparatus final at the 2020 Summer Olympics, August 1, 2021, in Tokyo. (AP Photo/Natacha Pisarenko) Israel’s “change government” has already brought some change: its members are well-mannered and the prime minister and his alternate do not behave like autocrats who think they are the center of the universe. But after two months some people are asking: Where is the fundamental change? The government recently passed a national state budget. That corrects an extraordinary situation in which Israel operated without one at the height of a terrible economic crisis. This is very important and conveyed welcome sanity, but it is not a systemic change. Some will say that the ideological diversity of the government prevents systemic change. This is true about the Palestinian issue: the West Bank occupation will have to become more painful for Israelis before public opinion moves enough to cough up a government that feels partition is imperative. But it’s not the case on all aspects of the second issue bedeviling the country, and that is religion and state. Every change-seeking manager knows its best to start with change that is right, logical, popular and possible. And such a candidate exists, right before our eyes: civil marriage. Marriage is a fundamental right. Most will agree that it’s reasonable to deny it in certain cases – to minors, close relatives, and so forth. But Israel goes much further. · It denies marriage to anyone who wants to wed members of another religion, even though the state is home to citizens of many religions. · It denies marriage to Jews who are not considered Jews by the rabbinate. · It denies marriage to those who object to a religious wedding due to atheism or any other reason. The above groups must either not marry at all, marry abroad and hope that the Interior Ministry recognizes their marriage, or settle for a marriage-like legal contract that seeks to formalize similar rights but without official recognition as a “marriage.” This doesn’t seem right. Apologists for the status quo will argue that “marriage” is ipso facto a religious construct. That’s reminiscent of US conservatives’ argument that marriage is by definition the union of a man and a woman; the lesbian and gay community rejected this, insisted that words have consequences, and argued that justice must be seen – and they won. In Israel, the state is in effect telling its citizens that marriage is a purely religious matter. But this does not reflect how most people think of it. I am married despite little if any religious sentiment, and I certainly seek no validation from the Rabbinate, dominated as it is by extremist bureaucrats from the rather rigid Orthodox Jewish stream, which is a minority among the rest of the Jews of the world. This view is the lot of many and probably most of the secular Jews in Israel. The problem was starkly illustrated this week with the rise to prominence of the story of Artem Dolgopyat of Israel, celebrates after winning the gold medal on the floor exercise during the artistic gymnastics men’s apparatus final at the 2020 Summer Olympics, Sunday, Aug. 1, 2021, in Tokyo. (AP Photo/Natacha Pisarenko) Israel’s first Olympic gymnastics champion. He was Jewish enough to immigrate from Ukraine at age 12, Jewish enough to serve in the military, and Jewish enough to proudly wear the Star of David in Tokyo. He brought great honor to Israel and caused the anthem “Hatikva,” with the well-known verse about the “Jewish soul,” to be played for only the second time in history at the Olympics. But he is not Jewish enough to marry in Israel, because only his father is Jewish, displeasing the Rabbinate and its Orthodox apparatchiks. There are many hundreds of thousands of people in Israel with this same issue, and many more would join them had ancestors not slipped through the cracks in a more forgiving and rational time. It’s a significant portion of the adult population. This is the fruit of awkward compromises in the early days of the state, when Haredim did not dominate the religious establishment as they do today. In the current circumstances, it does not seem logical. Few if any countries in the developed world give religion such a monopoly on marriage. Even Iran does not do this (it has civil courts with authority over marriage, although Islamic rules do apply widely, such as the requirement that brides of all ages secure permission from the father). This situation brings misery to multitudes and disgrace to all, and provides ammunition to the enemies of Israel. It helps those who denigrate the country as a theocracy. It plays into the hands of those who claim that the Jews are merely a religion and not a people and therefore do not deserve a state. It is, indirectly, a gift to the BDS movement that would love Israel destroyed. What Israelis think this a good idea? The answer seems to be not many. Poll after poll shows that a strong majority of around three-quarters – a rarity in this divided land – would welcome the introduction of a civil marriage option. Such a move would be popular. And it is also possible. Among the right-wing parties in the coalition, the secularist Yisrael Beiteinu will be eager to do so, and the responsible-nationalist New Hope won’t stand in the way. Prime Minister Naftali Bennett’s Yamina party may wobble a little for fear of angering the Haredim (and this they certainly would do, even if their monopoly on Jewish rites, with its hostility to Conservative and Reform Jews, is maintained for now); but Yamina’s position is fuzzy, considering the bond between Bennett and secularist incoming PM Yair Lapid. Such a move would confront Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud with a difficult choice between supporting a reform so obviously right and just or opposing it for fear of the Haredi political parties, without whom Likud is more or less doomed to opposition. They will probably oppose it, outraging many of their own supporters and providing voters with some clarity. The establishment of civil marriage in Israel would correct a truly absurd situation and signal that the “change government” is worthy of its nickname. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dan Perry is the former Cairo-based Middle East editor and London-based Europe/Africa editor of the Associated Press, and served as the chairman of the Foreign Press Association in Jerusalem. A technologist by education, he is the Chief Business Development Officer of the innovative ad tech company Engageya, and Managing Partner of the award-winning communications firm Thunder11. Follow him at twitter.com/perry_dan www.linkedin.com/in/danperry1 www.instagram.com/danperry63 https://www.facebook.com/DanPerryWriter/ https://muckrack.com/dan-perry-22

0.00 stars, 0 ratings

Or Log In

00:00 / 00:00