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鮮卑宇文部的建國滅國故事-蒙古與歐亞大陸游牧民族變遷史之(27)

外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
2021-02-12
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宇文部,古代鮮卑部族(蒙古語族)的一個部族,主要活動於遼西一帶,與同時期存在的鮮卑部落-慕容部、段部相同,皆屬東部鮮卑的一支。 一般看法認為,宇文部起源自西元一世紀時北匈奴被東漢擊走西遷後,留在故地漠北的部眾,投靠鮮卑後成為重要的部族之一,但宇文鮮卑並不是蒙古語族。在這段期間宇文部並曾參加鮮卑首領檀石槐的部落聯盟,首領成為鮮卑的東部大人。可以說宇文部是源自匈奴,而後揉合了鮮卑血統的部族。 宇文部在這個時期的幾位首領,與拓跋部鮮卑關係較佳,二部有時通婚;進入五胡十六國時期後,宇文部依附勢力強大的匈奴羯人後裔石勒創建的後趙,但宇文部與鮮卑慕容部之間卻是因為地盤重疊產生不是你死就是我活的生死爭鬥,而連續幾位宇文部的首領宇文莫珪、遜昵延、乞得龜、逸豆歸皆曾為慕容部所敗,在344年一次決定性戰役中,宇文部終於被慕容部後來建立的前燕國給滅亡,部眾被遷移後散滅。 但宇文部可沒有就此消失無蹤,等到鮮卑的慕容部建立的前燕、拓跋部建立的代國、羯人食勒後趙、氐人等政權被前秦苻堅統一,但淝水之戰後前秦瓦解,所有胡族國家紛紛復國,慕容垂重建後燕且有另一支慕容家族西燕、拓跋珪重建代國並隨即改名魏(北魏)、呂光建北涼、姚萇建後秦、鮮卑禿髮部建南涼、鮮卑乞伏部建西秦,匈奴鐵弗部赫連勃勃建胡夏、匈奴盧水胡沮渠蒙遜建北涼等等,此起彼落相互交征戰,最後北魏在西元439年一統天下。 北魏到534年滅亡分裂為東魏與西魏,550年東魏被北齊篡位,557年西魏被北周篡位。北周皇族宇文氏即宇文部鮮卑的後裔,曾擔任西魏的太師、北周的奠基者宇文泰就是過去宇文部首領逸豆歸的五世孫。 除此之外,宇文部有一旁支後來在南北朝時發展成庫莫奚族,該族於隋朝後被稱為奚族(主要在遼東活動)。而另外一支迭剌部也在南北朝時發展成一個在後世頗具影響力的部族-契丹(契丹也有來自被滅國的北鮮卑柔然汗國遺民的加入)。 北周(557年—581年),是中國歷史上南北朝的北朝之一,又稱宇文周。由西魏權臣宇文泰奠定國基,由其子宇文覺在其侄子宇文護的擁立下正式建立。歷五帝,共二十四年。 這個宇文泰很有意思,他的事蹟簡直是史上最厲害的權臣,當一個開國太祖都綽綽有餘。他在掌握西魏朝政當權臣的時代,扭轉北魏孝文帝的漢化政策,恢復西魏皇族的元氏為拓跋氏、士兵也跟隨主將的胡姓改胡姓,並授給一批漢人胡姓。此外他足智多謀,在與對頭東魏軍隊多次交鋒中多占上風。537年春,東魏進攻潼關,宇文泰率軍大敗之。秋,東魏十萬人進沙苑(今陝西大荔),宇文泰以不滿萬人乘東魏軍輕敵,親自鳴鼓奮戰,獲得大勝,俘虜七萬人。547年,西魏守將韋孝寬以七千人馬留守位置險要的玉璧城,頂住高歡十萬鮮卑鐵騎長達五十餘天的輪番衝擊。高歡喪師達7萬,智力用盡,玉璧城卻始終屹立不倒,高歡愁悶無處發泄,被活活氣死。 經濟上,勸課農桑,恢復均田制。並注意屯田以資軍用。曾採納蘇綽建議進行改革,制定了「墨入朱出」(臣子上奏用黑筆寫,上級回覆用紅筆寫)公文格式,以朱色、墨色區別財政支出與收入(中文「赤字」的由來),定出戶籍冊和臚列次年課役大數的計帳制度。大統十三年的計帳,在敦煌石窟里有殘卷保存下來。後又針對地方官員制定六條詔書:清心、敦教化、盡地利、擢賢良、恤獄訟、均賦役。 宇文泰改革軍隊統轄系統,建立府兵制,以擴大兵源。這個制度為隋唐所沿用。形式上採取鮮卑舊八部制,立八柱國,實為六軍。每個柱國大將軍下設有兩個大將軍,共12個大將軍;每個大將軍下有兩個開府,共24個開府;每個開府下有兩個儀同,共48個儀同;一個儀同領兵千人。這樣,六柱國合計有兵四萬八千人左右。這就是歷史上著名的府兵。 西魏從頭到尾都是由權臣操控的朝代,西魏恭帝三年(556年),實際掌握西魏政權的權臣宇文泰死後,宇文泰第三子宇文覺繼任大冢宰,自稱周公。次年(557年)初,他廢西魏恭帝自立,國號周,建都於長安(今陝西西安市),史稱北周。當時宇文覺還年幼,大權掌握在堂兄宇文護手中。九月,宇文護殺宇文覺,立宇文毓為帝。560年,宇文護又毒死宇文毓,立宇文邕為帝,史稱北周武帝。572年,周武帝宇文邕智誅權臣宇文護,親掌朝政,進行了多方面的改革。 北齊後主高緯是歷史上有名的昏君,政務混亂,生活奢侈昏亂。北周武帝看清了北齊混亂的局勢,決定出兵伐齊。577年,北周滅北齊,統一北方,但北周武帝隔年578年駕崩。 580年5月,北周宣帝宇文贇病死。周靜帝宇文衍年幼,由掌握軍權的外戚左丞相楊堅輔助朝政。581年,楊堅受禪代周稱帝,改國號為隋,北周亡。但宇文家族多人無喪家國之痛,加入楊堅之隋朝成為重臣大將,掌握軍權。如宇文述曾為宇文護部將,後在北周滅北齊之戰中為楊堅麾下,之後為楊堅所用。楊堅篡位稱帝后,尉遲炯之亂起,宇文述與韋孝寬一起共同抵抗各地起兵將領攻擊,保護了新誕生的隋朝的安全,宇文述也參與楊廣奪取皇位的陰謀,受到隋煬帝重用,成為隋軍第二號人物左翊衛大將軍。 宇文述兒子宇文化及、宇文智及參與了後來對隋煬帝的弒君惡行,三弟宇文氏及因與隋煬帝女兒南陽公主結婚而未被兄弟告知此事,但也造成夫妻離異。 宇文化及弒君後,受到眾軍閥為攻,與李密、王世充、竇建德連番大戰後,最後還自己稱帝建國號為許,為大許皇帝,619年被竇建德擊敗俘虜並砍了腦袋。大許滅亡。 三弟宇文士及是唐高祖李淵自小的友人,四妹宇文昭儀則是李淵的妃子之一,因此在宇文化及敗亡的末期,他率軍投靠李淵,最後成為唐朝武將,625年成為門下省侍中,為宰相之一,並隨即參與626年李世民玄武門之變殺死太子李建成與齊王李元吉,被封為中書令。627年改任涼州都督抵禦突厥,最後642年宇文士及死。宇文家族之後聲名不顯。 The Yuwen Tribe, a tribe of the ancient Xianbei tribe (Mongolian language tribe), mainly active in western Manchuria. It is the same as the Murong Tribe and Duan Tribe of the Xianbei that existed in the same period. It belongs to the eastern Xianbei section. It is generally believed that the Yuwen Tribe originated in the first century AD after the Northern Huns were expelled westward by the Eastern Han Dynasty. The tribes who stayed in Mongolian steppe became one of the important tribes of Xianbei, but Yuwen Xianbei was not originally a Mongolian language family. During this period, the Yuwen tribe had participated in the tribal alliance of Xianbei, and the leader became one of the eastern lord of Xianbei. It can be said that the Yuwen Tribe originated from the Xiongnu, and then merged with the Xianbei. Several leaders of the Yuwen Tribe kept a better relationship with the Tuoba Xianbei, and the two were sometimes intermarried. After entering the period of the 5 Barbarians-16 Kingdoms Period, the Yuwen tribe used to relied on the Hou Zhao kingdom founded by Shi-le, a descendant of the powerful Huns. However, because of the overlap between the Yuwen tribe and the Xianbei Murong Tribe was a life-and-death struggle between them. The leaders of the Yuwen tribe, Yuwen Mogui, Xunniyan, Qi Degui, and Yidou Gui were all defeated by the Murong Tribe, at the end in a decisive battle in 344, the Yuwen Tribe was finally destroyed by the former Yan Kingdom, which was established by the Murong Tribe. The Yuwen tribe was removed and dispersed. However, the Yuwen Xianbei did not disappear. The former Yan kingdom was established by the Murong Department of Xianbei, the Dai kingdom was established by the Tuoba tribe, the Xionghu leader Shi-le's Hou Zhao Kingdom, Di's Ching empire and other regimes were unified by the former Qin Fu-jian. After 383 AD Feishui battle, the pre-Qin empire collapsed, all the Hu countries were restored. Murong Chui rebuilt the post-yan and another Murong family established West-yan kingdom. Tuoba rebuilt the Dai kingdom and then renamed Wei (Northern Wei), Lu-Guang established Ho-Liang kingdom, Yao Chang built the post-Qin kingdom, The Xianbei Tu-Fa tribe built South-Liang kingdom, the Xianbei Qi-fu tribe built the Western Qin kingdom, the Xiongnu Tiefu tribe Helian-bobo built Hu Xia kingdom, the Xiongnu Lushui-Hu tribe leader Chu-qu-Mengxun built North-liang kingdom etc., one after another fought against each other, and finally The Northern Wei Dynasty unified the northern part of China in 439 AD. By the end of the Northern Wei Dynasty in 534, it was divided into Eastern Wei and Western Wei. In 550, Eastern Wei was replaceed by Northern Qi, and Western Wei was replaced by Northern Zhou in 557. The Yuwen, royal family of the Northern Zhou Dynasty is a descendant of Yuwen-Xianbei. Yuwen-Tai, who served as the Taishi(Empror's teacher) of the Western Wei Dynasty and the founder of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, is the fifth grandson of Yidougui, the leader of the past Yuwen Tribe. In addition, there was an offshoot of the Yuwen Tribe that later developed into the Kumo-xi Tribe during the Southern and Northern Dynasties, which was called the Xi tribe in the Sui Dynasty (mainly active in Manchuria). Another tribe of Diela also developed into an influential tribe in later generations during the Southern and Northern Dynasties-the Khitan (the Khitan was also joined by the remnants of the Northern Xianbei Rouran Khanate ). The Northern Zhou (557-581) was one of the Northern Dynasties of the Southern and Northern Dynasties in Chinese history, also known as Yuwen Zhou. The foundation of the country was laid by Yu Wentai, the power minister of the Western Wei Dynasty, and was officially established by his son Yu Wenjue under the support of his nephew Yuwen-Hu. The Northern Zhou had 5 Emperors, a total of twenty-four years. This Yuwentai is very interesting historical figure. He reversed the Sinicization policy of Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty. For example, he restored the surname of the Western Wei imperial family to Tuoba, and the soldiers also changed the surname to his general's surname in Barbarian's way. In addition, he is always in the upper hand in many confrontations with the enemy Eastern Wei army. In the spring of 537, the Eastern Wei Dynasty attacked Tongguan, and Yuwentai led his army to defeat. In autumn, one hundred thousand people from the Eastern Wei Dynasty entered the Shayuan (now Dali, Shaanxi). Yuwentai took the Eastern Wei army to underestimate the enemy with less than ten thousand people, personally beat the drums and fought and won a big victory and captured 70,000 enemy troops. In 547, Wei Xiaokuan, guard general of the Western Wei Dynasty, left the prestigious Yubi City with 7,000 men and horses, and withstood the more than fifty days of repeated attacks by Gao Huan’s 100,000 Xianbei cavalry. Gao Huan lost 70,000 troops, exhausted his intelligence, but Yubi-city remained standing still, Gao Huan was so sad that he had nowhere to vent and was so angry. Economically, urge the farming and give the land's ownership to farmers. And pay attention to Tuntian for military use. Adopting Su Chuo’s suggestion for reforms, the official document format of "Ink In and Red Out" (written in black for ministers and red for emperors decision) was formulated, and fiscal expenditures and revenues were distinguished in ink colors (the origin of the Chinese "deficit" ), set out the household register and the accounting system that lists most of the school service in the following year. The accounts of the 13th year of Datong are preserved in the Dunhuang Grottoes. Later, six edicts were formulated for local officials: clean heart, educate education, do the best for the land, be virtuous, be courteous, and be taxed. Yuwentai reformed the military control system and established a military system to expand the source of troops. This system was used in the following Sui and Tang Dynasties. In the form of Xianbei’s old eight-part system, the eight-pillar kingdom was established, which is actually the Sixth Army. There are two generals under each pillar country, totaling 12 generals; each general has two open mansions, a total of 24 open mansions; each open mansion has two rituals, a total of 48 rituals ; One Yitong leads thousands of soldiers. In this way, the Six Pillar Kingdom has a total of 48,000 soldiers. This is the famous military soldier in history. The Western Wei Dynasty was a dynasty controlled by officials from the beginning to the end. In the third year of Emperor Gong in the Western Wei Dynasty (556 years), after the death of the official Yu Wentai who actually controlled the Western Wei regime, Yu Wenjue, the third son of Yu Wentai, succeeded Otsukazai and claimed to be Zhou Gong. At the beginning of the following year (557), he abolished Emperor Gong of the Western Wei Dynasty to stand on his own. The national title was Zhou. The capital was established in Chang'an (now Xi'an, Shaanxi), which was called the Northern Zhou Dynasty in history. At that time, Yu Wenjue was still young, and the power was in the hands of his cousin Yu Wenhu. In September, Yuwen protects and kills Yuwenjue and establishes Yuwenyu as emperor. In 560, Yuwenhu poisoned Yuwenyu again and established Yuwenyong as the emperor, who was called Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty in history. In 572, Emperor Wu of Zhou, Yu Wen, Yong Zhi, and Yu Wenhu, the power minister, took charge of the government and carried out various reforms. Gao Wei, the post-master of the Northern Qi Dynasty, was a famous monarch in history, with chaotic government affairs and extravagant life. Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty saw the chaotic situation in the Northern Qi Dynasty clearly and decided to send troops to fight Qi. In 577, the Northern Zhou Dynasty destroyed the Northern Qi and unified the north, but Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty died in 578 the following year. In May 580, Emperor Yuwen Yun of the Northern Zhou Dynasty died of illness. Emperor Zhou Jing, Yu Wenyan, was young and was assisted by Yang Jian, the prime minister of the left, who had military power. In 581, Yang Jian was proclaimed the emperor of Zhou Dynasty by the Zen Dynasty, changed the name of the country to Sui, and died in the Northern Zhou Dynasty. However, many members of the Yuwen family did not have the pain of losing their family and country, and joined Yang Jianzhi in the Sui Dynasty to become a minister and general and master the military power. For example, Yuwenshu used to be a general of Yuwen protector, and was later used by Yang Jian in the battle of the Northern Zhou Dynasty to destroy the Northern Qi. After Yang Jian usurped the throne and proclaimed himself emperor, Yu Chijiong's rebellion arose. Yu Wenshu and Wei Xiaokuan jointly resisted attacks by generals from various places and protected the safety of the newly born Sui Dynasty. Yu Wenshu also participated in Yang Guang’s conspiracy to seize the throne and was reused by Emperor Sui Yang. Became the second person in the Sui Army, General Zuo Yiwei. Yu Wenshu’s sons Yu Wenhua and Yu Wenzhi participated in the later evil deeds against Emperor Yang of Sui. The third brother Yuwen and Princess Nanyang, daughter of Emperor Yang, were not informed by their brothers, but they also divorced. After Yu Wenhua and the killing of the emperor, they were attacked by the warlords. After repeated battles with Li Mi, Wang Shichong, and Dou Jiande, he finally called himself the Emperor Jianguo Xu, the Emperor Da Xu. In 619, he was defeated and captured by Dou Jiande and his head was beheaded. Probably perished. The third younger brother Yuwenshi was a friend of Li Yuan, the emperor of the Tang Dynasty, and his fourth sister Yuwen Zhaoyi was one of Li Yuan’s concubines. Therefore, at the end of Yuwen and his defeat, he led his army to join Li Yuan and finally became a Tang Dynasty general. He became one of the prime ministers of the province, and immediately participated in the 626 change of Li Shimin's Xuanwu Gate to kill Prince Li Jiancheng and Qi Wang Li Yuanji, and he was named Zhongshu Order. In 627, he was reappointed as the governor of Liangzhou to resist the Turks. In the last 642, Yushuo died. Afterwards, the Yuwen family disaapear from China's history.

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