2021.03.22 國際新聞導讀-美國撤軍阿富汗、美國猶太人支持亞裔反迫害歧視、冰島承認猶太教合法、巴勒斯坦大選競選清單提交、約旦允許美軍自由進出 美國國防部長在喀布爾會見阿富汗總統 他們討論了和平進程以及對暴力加劇的擔憂。 美國國防部長勞埃德·奧斯丁（Lloyd Austin）週日在對喀布爾的訪問中會晤了阿富汗總統阿什拉夫·加尼（Ashraf Ghani），當時華盛頓正在審查阿國的和平進程及計劃中的撤軍。 奧斯丁在推特上說，自從他被任命以來，他第一次去阿富汗，就是來“聽和學”的。 這次會議是在阿富汗和平進程的關鍵時刻，這是叛軍塔利班 和前美國總統唐納德·特朗普政府達成的5月1日撤軍的最後期限 。 拜登週三告訴美國廣播公司新聞，截止日期將很難達成，他的政府正在與盟國協商，並正在做出決定。美國阿富汗問題特使扎爾邁·哈利勒扎德（Zalmay Khalilzad）最近幾周也一直在該地區旅行，提出的建議包括臨時阿富汗政府和在土耳其舉行的首腦會議，以啟動和平進程。塔利班和卡塔爾首都多哈的阿富汗政府之間的談判一直在努力獲得動力，暴力事件有所增加。塔利班週五表示，他們希望看到這一進程加快，但警告華盛頓，不要在其商定的撤軍日期之後繼續駐紮 阿富汗。阿富汗總統府週日表示，奧斯丁和加尼討論了和平進程以及對暴力升級的擔憂。 US Defense Secretary meets Afghan president in Kabul They discussed the peace process and concerns over rising violence. United States Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin met Afghan President Ashraf Ghani in an unnanounced visit to Kabul on Sunday, as Washington reviews the peace process there and its planned troop withdrawal. Austin said on Twitter he had come to "listen and learn," on his first trip to Afghanistan since his appointment. "This visit been very helpful for me, and it will inform my participation in the review we are undergoing here with (US President Joe Biden)," he added. The meeting comes at a crucial time for the Afghan peace process ahead of a May 1 deadline for the withdrawal of US troops agreed by the insurgent Taliban and the administration of previous US President Donald Trump. Biden told ABC News on Wednesday that the deadline would be tough to meet and that his administratiin was consulting with allies and in the process of making a decision. The United States special envoy for Afghanistan, Zalmay Khalilzad, has also been traveling in the region in recent weeks with proposals including an interim Afghan government and a summit in Turkey to jumpstart the peace process. Negotiations between the Taliban and the Afghan government in Qatar's capital Doha have struggled to gain momentum and violence has risen. The Taliban said on Friday they would like to see the process sped up but warned Washington against keeping troops in Afghanistan beyond their agreed withdrawal date. Afghanistan's presidential palace said on Sunday Austin and Ghani discussed the peace process and concerns over rising violence. 猶太人對冠狀病毒大流行開始時針對亞裔美國人的暴力和仇外心理的擔憂和回應。我們的組織美國猶太人委員會非常熟悉針對我們社區的歧視和暴力行為，並致力於保護所有少數族裔，長期以來一直認識到陰謀論和言辭往往會導致致命的暴力。 我們應該明確表示譴責仇恨和支持亞裔美國人社區。週二，該國目睹了可怕的爆發點：在亞特蘭大的槍擊案造成8人死亡，其中包括6名亞裔婦女。我們在亞特蘭大及全國各地的同事加入了亞裔美國人社區和其他組織，譴責這種可怕的暴力行為。不論射手的動機如何，仍在調查之中，無可否認，亞裔婦女是受害者，她們的謀殺反映了日益嚴重的公共危機以及全國各地亞裔美國人日益增加的合法恐懼。 亞特蘭大襲擊事件是一年來對亞裔美國人前所未有的襲擊事件中的最新一次。Stop AAPI Hate是記錄反亞洲仇恨和歧視的聯盟，從2020年3月19日到2021年2月28日，共記錄了3795起仇恨事件。這僅是針對亞裔美國人的實際犯罪的一小部分，出於各種原因不予報導。紐約警察局在2020年的反亞洲仇恨犯罪記錄增加了1900％，美國其他城市也發布了類似的統計數據。針對亞裔美國人的女性的襲擊頻率是男性的兩倍以上，據報導，有125例以上的案件涉及老年人。不斷增加的數字無可否認，亞裔美國人所面臨的偏見和暴力是真實的並且在惡化，而且亞裔美國人越來越（並且有充分的理由）感到恐懼。 在AJC的《 2020年美國反猶太主義狀況報告》中，我們發現猶太人和非猶太美國人對反猶太主義的威脅形成了鮮明的對比：88％的美國猶太人將反猶太主義視為當今美國的一個問題，而不是62％的普通大眾 82％的美國猶太人看到反猶太主義的增加，而只有43％的公眾同意這種看法。最令人震驚的是，民意調查的結果表明，猶太人自己不被視為反猶太主義的合法仲裁者，但其他人更有能力界定反猶太主義的言論，動機和行為。 亞裔美國人正在經歷類似的現象。 許多非亞裔評論員輕描淡寫或公然否認仇外心理和種族主義，並因此對亞裔社區造成危險。輕蔑的態度盛行，亞裔美國人提出歧視的主張，就像猶太人一樣，他們被視為在這個國家蓬勃發展的“模範少數民族”，經常遭到削弱或忽視，甚至被嘲笑。 美國猶太人知道，充耳不聞的焦慮情緒日漸令人沮喪。我們必須確保聽到，尊重和支持亞裔美國人。記錄在案的數千種歧視性行為，包括最近幾個月針對全國范圍內針對亞裔美國人的暴力行為的多次報導，其中一些被鏡頭捕捉，不可否認的是，反亞裔言論和暴力行為是一個現實而危險的問題。 猶太社區如何提供幫助？ 首先，我們必須確保所有人（無論是受害者還是證人）都知道如何舉報仇恨犯罪，並且我們有能力將這些信息準確地傳達給執法人員和其他人。更準確的報告強調了局勢的嚴重性和採取行動的必要性，並確保了對肇事者的責任。 第二，我們必須敦促民選官員通過支持和保護少數群體的立法。AJC率先與150多個亞裔美國人和其他社區組織共同努力，倡導國會通過《賈巴拉·海爾反對仇恨，攻擊和平等威脅全國反對法案》。這項立法將通過州和地方政府對執法培訓的撥款來改善仇恨犯罪報告，允許建立仇恨犯罪熱線，增加與受影響社區聯繫的資源，並舉辦關於仇恨犯罪的公共教育論壇。 第三，我們必須繼續表達聲援並真正聽取我們在亞裔美國人社區中的朋友和夥伴，包括許多倍加仇恨的亞裔美國人。擴大他們的聲音並確保聽到他們的故事對於獲得公眾的理解和支持至關重要。詢問您如何在組織或個人層面上有用，並採取相應的行動。 猶太人明白，在這種時候沉默是自滿的。我們一定不能保持沉默。我們決不能自滿。美國猶太人將與我們在歷史上以及在未來一樣，與亞裔美國人站在一起，不僅希望而且積極地為所有人謀求更美好的未來。 Jews must ensure that Asian Americans are heard The Atlanta attacks were the latest in a year of unprecedented assaults on Asian Americans. By DYLAN ADELMAN, SHIRA LOEWENBERG/JTA MARCH 20, 2021 05:39 One year ago, we addressed Jewish concerns and response to the violence and xenophobia directed at Asian Americans at the start of the coronavirus pandemic. Our organization, the American Jewish Committee, all too familiar with discrimination and violence directed at our community and dedicated to the protection of all minorities, has long recognized that conspiracy theories and rhetoric often lead to deadly violence. That we should speak out in condemnation of hate and in support of the Asian-American community was clear. Recommended by We hoped we wouldn’t need to say more. But tragically, one year later, the problem has intensified. On Tuesday, the nation witnessed a terrible flashpoint: a shooting spree in Atlanta left eight people dead, including six Asian-American women. Our colleagues in Atlanta and across the country joined the Asian-American community and others in condemning this horrific act of violence. Regardless of the motives of the shooter, which are still being investigated, there is no denying that Asian-American women were the victims and that their murder reflects a rising public crisis and increasing — and legitimate — fears among Asian Americans across the country. The Atlanta attacks were the latest in a year of unprecedented assaults on Asian Americans. Stop AAPI Hate, a coalition that documents anti-Asian hate and discrimination, recorded 3,795 reported hate incidents from March 19, 2020 to Feb. 28, 2021. This represents only a fraction of the real crimes against Asian Americans that for a variety of reasons go unreported. The New York Police Department recorded a 1,900% increase in anti-Asian hate crimes in 2020, and other cities in the U.S. posted similar statistics. Asian-American women are targeted more than twice as often as men, and more than 125 reported cases have involved senior citizens. The rising numbers leave no room for denial that the prejudice and violence that Asian Americans face is real and worsening, and that Asian Americans are increasingly — and for good reason — afraid. In AJC’s 2020 report on the State of Antisemitism in America, we found a stark contrast in perceptions of the threat of antisemitism by Jewish and non-Jewish Americans: 88% of American Jews saw antisemitism as a problem in the U.S. today, as opposed to 62% of the general public. And 82% of American Jews saw antisemitism increasing, whereas only 43% of the general public agreed with that perception. Most alarmingly, the poll findings indicated that Jews themselves were not trusted as being legitimate arbiters of what is antisemitic, but that others are better equipped to define antisemitic rhetoric, motivation and acts. Asian Americans are experiencing a similar phenomenon. Many non-Asian commentators downplay or blatantly deny the xenophobia and racism and ensuing dangers to the Asian-American community. A dismissive attitude prevails, with claims of discrimination by Asian Americans, who, like Jews, have been viewed as a “model minority” thriving in this country, are frequently diminished or ignored, if not ridiculed. American Jews know the frustration of rising anxieties falling on deaf ears. We must ensure that Asian Americans are heard, respected and supported. With thousands of discriminatory acts on record, including the last months’ multiple reports of violence against Asian Americans across the country, some caught on camera, there can be no denying that anti-Asian rhetoric and violence is a real and dangerous problem. How can the Jewish community help? First, we must ensure that all know how to report a hate crime, as a victim or a witness, and that we are equipped to accurately communicate that information to law enforcement and others. More accurate reporting underlines the gravity of the situation and the need for action, and it ensures accountability for perpetrators. Second, we must urge elected officials to pass legislation that will support and protect minorities. AJC has spearheaded an effort, with over 150 Asian-American and other community organizations, advocating for Congress to pass the Jabara-Heyer National Opposition to Hate, Assaults, and Threats to Equality (NO HATE) Act. This legislation will improve hate crime reporting through state and local grants for law enforcement training, allowing for the creation of hate crime hotlines, increasing resources to liaise with affected communities and conducting public educational forums on hate crimes. Third, we must continue to express solidarity with and truly listen to our friends and partners in the Asian-American community, including the many Asian-American Jews who are experiencing rising hate doubly. Amplifying their voices and ensuring that their stories are heard is critical to garnering public understanding and support. Ask how you can be useful at an organizational or individual level, and act accordingly. Jews understand that silence at times like these is complacency. We must not be silent. We must not be complacent. American Jews will stand with Asian Americans as we have historically and into the future, not only hoping for but actively seeking a better future for all. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of JTA or its parent company, 70 Faces Media. Candidates submit lists for PA parliamentary vote The commission is scheduled to study candidacy applications within five days from the date of their submission before deciding whether to accept or reject them. By KHALED ABU TOAMEH MARCH 20, 2021 20:19 Candidates running for the Palestinian parliamentary election began on Saturday submitting their lists to the Central Elections Commission offices in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The parliamentary election has been set for May 22, to be followed by a vote for the PA presidency on July 31. Earlier, the commission announced that it would start receiving applications for candidacy for the parliamentary election between March 20 and 31. The commission said that candidacy is through electoral lists on the basis of full proportional representation, and individual candidacy applications are not accepted. The number of candidates for each list should not be less than 16 and no more than 132. On the first day, three lists were presented to the commission: 1 – Democratic Change, which is affiliated with the PLO’s Marxist-Leninist Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), 2 – Palestine For All, headed by Gaza Strip resident former PA labor and housing minister Mufeed al-Hasayna, 3 – My Dignity, headed by Dr. Mansour Salamah, a prominent academic and researcher from the city of Tulkarm in the northern West Bank. The DFLP said that its 61-member list consists of activists of youth movements and independent figures from east Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and said that its list seeks to end “the devastating state of division [between the West Bank and Gaza Strip] and confront the occupation and its terror against our people.” Hasayna, the former PA minister, said that his list includes independent candidates who do not belong to any Palestinian political organizations. Young men and women constitute about 35% of the Palestine For All list, he said. “Our program will be from the people to the people, and it will focus on the difficult situation that our people are suffering from in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the difficult health situation they are experiencing, and the painful unemployment that prevents us from benefiting from youth experiences,” Hasayna added. The commission is scheduled to study candidacy applications within five days from the date of their submission before deciding whether to accept or reject them. Each list is required to provide the commission with the signatures of 3,000 supporters who are eligible voters. In addition, each list is required to deposit a sum of $20,000 into the commission’s bank account. According to the commission’s electoral regulations, a candidate running for the parliament, the Palestinian Legislative Council, must be over the age of 28 and without a felony or misdemeanor conviction. This means that Mohammed Dahlan – who was expelled from the ruling Fatah faction in 2011 and has since been living in the United Arab Emirates – would not be able to present his candidacy for the presidential election. In 2016, a PA court in Ramallah sentenced Dahlan in absentia to three years in prison on charges of embezzlement of public funds. Last week, Dahlan hinted that he may run in the presidential election. He said in an interview with the Saudi-owned Al-Arabiya television channel that his supporters were planning to participate in the parliamentary election. Palestinian sources told the Palestinian Al-Quds daily newspaper that Dahlan loyalists were discussing with Nasser al-Kidwa, a nephew of former PLO leader Yasser Arafat, the possibility of forming a joint list to contest the parliamentary election. Kidwa, a member of the Fatah Central Committee, was recently expelled from the faction after he formed his own list to participate in the election. He has also been dismissed from his job as chairman of the Yasser Arafat Foundation. The sources said that Kidwa was still hoping to join forces with jailed Fatah leader Marwan Barghouti, who is serving a five-life-term sentence in an Israeli prison for his role in terrorist attacks during the Second Intifada. Barghouti is reportedly considering challenging PA President Mahmoud Abbas and the Fatah leadership by running for president and forming a separate Fatah-affiliated list for the parliamentary vote. 巴勒斯坦自治政府國會大選（5/22）與總統大選（7/31）競選名單之提交將於 3月20至31日間提交給中選會，目前已有三組名單提交，提交者必須繳交2萬美元的保證金，名單由16人至132人皆可。 以色列取消巴勒斯坦自治政府外交部長（Riyad Al-Maliki）的旅行證件 里亞德·馬利基代表團從海牙返回後受到質詢；巴勒斯坦權力機構外交部指控此舉是對戰爭罪行的報復。巴勒斯坦權力機構外交部長利雅德·馬利基（Riyad al-Maliki）被剝奪了給予巴勒斯坦高級官員的特別旅行許可證，以色列情報人員周日在Al-Maliki訪問國際刑事法院後發生了一起不尋常的事件，對他的隨行人員進行了訊問。 巴勒斯坦自治政府外交部高級官員艾哈邁德·迪克告訴以色列時報，巴勒斯坦外交部從以色列當局獲悉，隨著外交官從約旦進入艾倫比過境點進入西岸，Al-Maliki的VIP旅行通行證已被取消。VIP旅行通行證通常可使巴勒斯坦權力機構官員和工作人員以最小的摩擦通過以色列檢查站，但據al-Deek稱，Sal Bet安全部門在現場對al-Maliki的隨行人員提出了質疑。al-Deek說：“部長被拘留了大約半小時，他的工作人員被推遲了大約一個小時。”Shin Bet拒絕置評。一位以色列官員證實了這一事件，但強調取消al-Maliki的通行證是一次性決定。 迪克說：“如果是這樣，我們希望以色列人向我們澄清這一點。”他指出，巴勒斯坦權力機構外交部只是被告知通行證已被取消。 以色列官員拒絕透露為何取消了馬利基的通行證。但是，巴勒斯坦權力機構外交部表示，由於拉馬拉對正在進行的國際刑事法院調查的熱情支持，以色列已取消了VIP許可證。 “以色列無法通過法律解決案件，而是訴諸恐嚇，制裁和威脅政策，”艾爾-迪克（Al-Deek）稍後在向巴勒斯坦權力機構WAFA新聞社發表的聲明中說。 Al-Maliki將從對歐洲的外交訪問中返回，其中包括前往海牙與即將離任的ICC首席檢察官Fatou Bensouda會晤。 本蘇達（Bensouda）在3月初宣布，她將對2014年夏季以色列和巴勒斯坦人在西岸，加沙和東耶路撒冷所採取的行動展開調查，但不包括三名以色列青少年的恐怖謀殺案。 她的宣布立即受到巴勒斯坦權力機構的歡迎，並遭到以色列的強烈譴責。 在al-Maliki訪問海牙期間，巴勒斯坦外交官敦促Bensouda加快調查速度。 馬利基辦公室在一份聲明中說：“外交部長強調……必須加快對在巴勒斯坦國境內所犯罪行的調查，以確保在巴勒斯坦人民中為受害者及其家屬伸張正義。” 。 Israel cancels PA foreign minister’s travel documents after visit to ICC Riyad Al-Maliki’s delegation questioned upon return from The Hague; PA Foreign Ministry charges move is retaliation for war crimes probe By AARON BOXERMANToday, 8:10 pm 3 Palestinian Authority Foreign Minister Riyad al-Maliki at a press conference on September 22, 2020. (WAFA) Palestinian Authority Foreign Minister Riyad al-Maliki was stripped of a special travel permit for senior Palestinian officials and his entourage was questioned by Israeli intelligence on Sunday in an unusual incident following Al-Maliki’s visit to the International Criminal Court. The PA Foreign Ministry was informed by Israeli authorities that Al-Maliki’s VIP travel pass had been canceled as the diplomat entered Allenby crossing from Jordan into the West Bank, senior PA Foreign Ministry official Ahmad al-Deek told The Times of Israel. Party's over: Miami imposes 8 p.m. curfew The VIP travel pass normally allows Palestinian Authority officials and staff to pass through Israeli checkpoints with minimal friction, but according to al-Deek, al-Maliki’s entourage was questioned by the Shin Bet security service at the scene. Get The Times of Israel's Daily Edition by email and never miss our top storiesFREE SIGN UP “The minister was held up for around half an hour, and his staff was delayed for around an hour, all told,” al-Deek said. The Allenby Bridge (also known as the King Hussein Bridge), a major land crossing between Israel and Jordan. (Flash90/File) The Shin Bet declined to comment. An Israeli official confirmed the incident, but stressed that canceling al-Maliki’s pass was a one-time decision. “If this is the case, we hope that the Israelis clarify this to us,” al-Deek said, noting that the PA Foreign Ministry had only been informed that the pass had been canceled. The Israeli official declined to specify why al-Maliki’s pass had been revoked. The PA Foreign Ministry, however, said that Israel had cancelled the VIP permit due to Ramallah’s enthusiastic support for the ongoing ICC investigation. “Israel is unable to solve cases through the law, but instead resorts to a policy of intimidation, sanctions and threats,” al-Deek said later in statements to the official Palestinian Authority WAFA news agency. Al-Maliki was returning from a diplomatic visit to Europe that included a trip to The Hague to meet with outgoing ICC Chief Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda. Bensouda announced early in March that she would open an investigation into actions committed by Israel and the Palestinians in the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem in the summer of 2014, but excluding the terrorist murder of three Israeli teens that started that escalation. Her announcement was immediately welcomed by the Palestinian Authority and furiously condemned by Israel. During al-Maliki’s visit to The Hague, the Palestinian diplomat urged Bensouda to accelerate the pace of the investigation. “The foreign minister stressed…the importance of expediting investigations into the crimes committed in the territory of the State of Palestine, in a manner that ensures justice for the victims and their families among the Palestinian people,” al-Maliki’s office said in a statement. Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda waits for former Congo vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba to enter the court room of the International Criminal Court to stand trial with Aime Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidele Babala Wandu and Narcisse Arido, on charges including corruptly influencing witnesses by giving them money and instructions to provide false testimony, and presenting false evidence, in The Hague, Netherlands, September 29, 2015. (AP/Peter Dejong) The announcement of the investigation came less than a month after the court ruled it had the jurisdiction to open a probe. A preliminary investigation to settle the justiciability question took more than five years. On Thursday — the same day as al-Maliki’s meeting with Bensouda — the ICC confirmed that it had sent formal notices about its impending investigation into possible war crimes to both Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The letters gave both parties one month to request the investigation’s deferral, the ICC said. 約旦安曼—約旦週日與美國公佈了一項防務協議，該協議允許美軍，飛機和車輛自由進入該王國領土。 外交大臣艾曼·薩法迪（Ayman Safadi）告訴議會，防務協定是“長期談判的成果”。該協議的條款在約旦新聞網站Ammon上發布，規定“美軍在行使職責時可能擁有武器並在約旦領土上流通。” 它還指出，美軍可以運輸和儲存設備，人員，其飛機和輪船均被授權“自由進出約旦領土”。 約旦外交部長艾曼·薩法迪（Ayman Safadi）將於2021年3月10日在柏林舉行的新聞發布會上。（凱·尼特菲爾德/ POOL /法新社） 伊斯蘭立法者薩利赫·阿爾·阿穆蒂（Saleh al-Armuti）譴責缺乏議會監督，並呼籲政府取消該協議，稱該協議“違反了憲法，影響了約旦的主權。” 但是薩法迪卻退縮了，說該協議“絕不會影響約旦的主權，它所包含的一切都受約旦法律管轄，並且與國際法相符。” 他對議員說：“該協議不授權美軍在沙特境內進行戰鬥。” 薩法迪說：“該協議旨在構築國防合作關係，並通過軍事訓練和裝備加強美國對國防計劃以及沙特王國的安全與穩定的支持。” 美國國務院認為哈希姆王國是“在廣泛的區域安全問題上至關重要的美國夥伴”。 薩法迪說，約旦是美國財政援助的主要接受者，其中包括每年4.25億美元的軍事援助。 home page Jordan publicizes defense deal that allows US forces free entry into kingdom Foreign Minister Ayman Safadi says controversial accord, which bypassed Jordanian parliament, was ‘the fruit of long negotiations’ By AFPToday, 9:27 pm 0 • • • • • • 0shares US soldiers participate in a joint drill with Jordan on April 26, 2018, in a training area near the town of Zarqa, east of Jordan's capital of Amman. (AP Photo/Raad Adayleh) AMMAN, Jordan — Jordan on Sunday made public a defense agreement with the United States that allows free entry of US forces, aircraft, and vehicles onto the kingdom’s territory. Foreign Minister Ayman Safadi told parliament that the defense accord was “the fruit of long negotiations.” The agreement was signed in January and the government approved it last month, but, in an exceptional move, it bypassed parliament. The royal decree was published in the official journal this week. Get The Times of Israel's Daily Edition by email and never miss our top storiesFREE SIGN UP The terms of the agreement, published on Jordanian news site Ammon, stipulate that “US forces may possess weapons and circulate with them on Jordanian territory while exercising their duties.” It also states that US forces may transport and stock equipment and that personnel, their aircraft and ships are authorized to “freely enter and exit Jordanian territory.” Jordan’s Foreign Minister Ayman Safadi at a press conference in Berlin on March 10, 2021. (Kay Nietfeld / POOL / AFP) Islamist lawmaker Saleh al-Armuti decried the lack of parliamentary oversight and called on the government to cancel the accord, claiming it “violates the constitution and affects Jordan’s sovereignty.” But Safadi pushed back, saying the agreement “in no way affects Jordan’s sovereignty, and everything it contains is subject to Jordanian law and is compatible with international law.” “The agreement does not authorize American forces to carry out combat actions within the kingdom,” he told lawmakers. “The agreement aims to frame defense cooperation and reinforce US support for defense programs and the kingdom’s security and stability through military training and equipment,” Safadi said. The US State Department considers the Hashemite kingdom “a vital US partner on a wide range of regional security issues.” Jordan is a key recipient of American financial aid — including $425 million in military assistance annually, according to Safadi.