2021年3月24日 新聞導讀-以色列國會大選出口民調、以色列開發口服新冠疫苗、阿拉伯聯盟呼籲黎巴嫩政界破除歧異儘快組成政府、阿富汗情勢塔利班與政府在卡達談判中

外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
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2021.03.24 新聞導讀-以色列國會大選出口民調、以色列開發口服新冠疫苗、阿拉伯聯盟呼籲黎巴嫩政界破除歧異儘快組成政府、阿富汗情勢塔利班與政府在卡達談判中 週二晚上的出口民意測驗預測,如果以色列兩年來連續第四次舉行大選,總理內塔尼亞胡將組成以色列議會120個席位中的61個席位。 以色列的三個主要新聞網絡在晚上10點發布了調查報告,投票站關閉,所有投票站都顯示出相同的趨勢,並且全部給反內塔尼亞胡集團59個席位。第12頻道為支持內塔尼亞胡的集團提供了53個席位,為國王製造者亞米納提供了8個席位,為反對內塔尼亞胡的集團提供了59個席位;第13頻道為內塔尼亞胡的有保證的支持者提供了54個席位,為亞米娜提供了7個席位,反對總理的席位則給了59個席位。Kan廣播公司還以54-59分配了陣營,而Yamina再次與7人一起成為決勝局。 Turnout, fate of small parties crucial as polls open for 6.5 million Israelis Netanyahu has gained ground at rivals’ expense in campaign’s final stretch as virus vaccines kick in; count could take longer than usual; few COVID patients register to vote By TOI STAFF Party leaders in Israel's March 23, 2021 elections. Top row left to right: Itamar Ben Gvir (Otzma Yehudit, part of the Religious Zionism party); Bezalel Smotrich (Religious Zionism); Naftali Bennett (Yamina); Aryeh Deri (Shas); Moshe Gafni (United Torah Judaism). Polling stations opened at 7 on Tuesday morning for Israel’s fourth election in two years, as the country seeks a way out of an unprecedented period of political deadlock and dysfunction. The election cycle, like the previous three, revolves around Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The ground has shifted since the last vote — with right-wing rivals defying him for the first time, and the centrist challenge mounted by Blue and White’s Benny Gantz having faded — but Netanyahu has so far managed to keep his footing, with polls showing him gaining ground at the expense of his rivals in recent weeks. ‘Life-saving’ nose spray that kills 99.9% of viruses begins production in Israel Join the Times of Israel Community Yaphet Kotto, Jewish actor who was first Black Bond villain, dies at 81 Tuesday’s vote is the second to take place under the shadow of the pandemic. The previous one, in March 2020, played out with the coronavirus storm still on the horizon and relatively few cases in Israel. An election campaign billboard for the Likud party that shows a portrait of its leader Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, left, and opposition party leader Yair Lapid. Netanyahu’s portrait is defaced with Hebrew that reads, “go home,” in Ramat Gan, Israel, Sunday, March 21, 2021. Israelis head to the polls on Tuesday for what will be the fourth parliamentary election in just two years. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty) But the outbreak in Israel is now receding amid a world-leading vaccination campaign spearheaded by Netanyahu, who has been in office for 12 years. The historic normalization agreements he reached with Arab states since the last election will also likely play in his favor. His ongoing corruption trial and splintered government will not, however, as he contends with challengers on both his right and left flanks. Following the last election, his unity government with Blue and White chief Gantz began crumbling almost immediately, and elections were triggered over a budget impasse many blamed on the premier. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu campaigns at Jerusalem’s Mahane Yehuda market, a day before the elections, on March 22, 2021. (Olivier Fitoussi/Flash90) Netanyahu’s Likud will almost certainly be the largest party in the Knesset after Israelis cast their votes at some 15,000 polling stations around the country. Many polls predict ongoing political deadlock; a few in the final days of the campaign have forecast a slim pro-Netanyahu coalition after the vote. Yair Lapid, leader of the Yesh Atid opposition party, campaigns in a mall in Haifa a day before national elections, Monday, March 22, 2021. (AP Photo/Ariel Schalit) The country has taken precautions to accommodate its 6,578,084 eligible voters during the pandemic, with logistics turning the election into the most expensive in Israel’s history. A maximum of only 650 voters are allowed at each polling station, and special measures have been taken to allow COVID-19 patients to vote. Out of some 15,000 virus carriers, only about 1,000 have registered for the special shuttles that will take them to designated polling stations, the Central Elections Committee said on Monday. The patients can only vote in those stations, which are designed to prevent infections, and they can only arrive using the state-run shuttles. Polling arrangements have also been put in place for Israelis flying in to Ben Gurion Airport Tuesday. The election comes amid tensions over the voting process and accusations of incitement from Netanyahu’s opponents. The head of the Elections Committee, Orly Adas, said Monday that vote counting will likely take several days — longer than usual — due to coronavirus precautions and the upcoming Passover holiday. She warned that the delay could be “fertile ground” for growing efforts to delegitimize the results. Central Elections Committee head Orly Adas shows a mock quarantined ballot, during a press conference at the Knesset in Jerusalem on February 26, 2020. (Olivier Fitoussi/Flash90) The main problem is the increase in numbers of the so-called double envelope ballots, which are not counted at the voting sites but are brought to the Central Elections Committee main headquarters in the Knesset for counting after the regular ballots. In normal years these include the votes of soldiers, medical staff and patients in hospitals, prisoners and disabled people, as well as diplomats abroad who vote earlier than the rest of the population. However, this year they also include those of people infected with the coronavirus and people in quarantine and in nursing homes. The number of double ballots is expected to increase from some 330,000 in the previous elections to between 500,000 and 600,000 this time, or the equivalent of 15 seats in the Knesset. With several parties currently hovering around the 3.25% electoral threshold, this could lead to radical shifts in the eventual composition of the Knesset. Channel 13 reported Monday that the Knesset Guard and security agencies were preparing for a scenario in which masses of people try to storm the Knesset building during or after the election, in what would mirror the scenes seen in January at the US Capitol after Donald Trump lost the election. There have been no publicized warnings of any concrete threats, however. 選Illustrative: Members of a Knesset security team take part in a defense drill against terror attacks, at the Knesset in Jerusalem, on February 26, 2017. (Maor Kinsbursky/ Flash90/File) Turnout is expected to be a key factor in the final results. In the previous three votes, turnout climbed slightly, despite predictions of voter fatigue, to 71.5% last March. Analysts have predicted a lower turnout on Tuesday. The voting rate in particular sectors will likely be crucial. Netanyahu’s ultra-Orthodox allies tend to see a very high rate of turnout, while Arab voters are expected to be less inclined to vote after the partial breakup of the Arab-majority Joint List alliance, which achieved its best-ever showing last year. A number of small parties have polled dangerously close to the electoral threshold and may not win Knesset representation, which could swing the race in either direction. 舉前的黨魁(左起):Yair Lapid,Naftali Bennett,Benjamin Netanyahu,Gideon Sa'ar,Benny Gantz(禮貌) 極端東正教的統一摩西五經猶太人和沙斯政黨以及右傾的猶太復國主義宗教黨忠於內塔尼亞胡的利庫德集團,而右翼的亞米娜一直不懷疑將由誰擔任總理。但是,亞米納領導人納夫塔利·本內特(Naftali Bennett)週一排除了參加由耶什·阿迪德(Yesh Atid)領導人亞伊爾·拉皮德(Yair Lapid)領導的政府的行動。 針對出口民意調查的結果,貝內特在周二晚間的簡短聲明中表示,他“只會做對以色列國有利的事情”。 在反內塔尼亞胡集團中,中間派是耶什·阿迪德(Yesh Atid),右翼的新希望(New Hope),右翼的伊斯拉爾·貝特努(Yisrael Beytenu),左翼的左翼工黨,主要是阿拉伯聯合陣線和左翼的梅雷茲(Meretz)。三場出口民意測驗顯示,內塔尼亞胡(Natanyahu)的利庫德(Likud)以31-33個席位遙遙領先。第二名是Yesh Atid,第12頻道和Kan頻道獲得18個席位,第13頻道預測了16個席位。班尼·甘茨的《藍與白》無視預測,以七個或八個席位輕鬆地清除了選舉門檻,而所有三項調查均表明,伊斯蘭教拉姆將不會獲得進入議會的最低票數。由於阿拉伯地區的投票率大幅下降,預計聯合名單將贏得八或九個席位,低於即將離任的以色列議會中拉姆的席位。在右岸的內塔尼亞胡的競爭對手中,前利庫德部長吉迪恩·薩爾(Gideon Sa'ar)的新希望黨(New Hope party)準備獲得五,六個席位,而伊斯雷爾·貝特努(Yisrael Beytenu)有望贏得6-8。預計首相的盟友托拉猶太教和沙斯將保持目前的地位,分別擁有6-7和8-9席位。 左翼梅雷茲在所有三個民意測驗中都超過了門檻,攀升至6-7個席位,而中左翼工黨預計將贏得七個席位。所有的網絡調查都預測,在內塔尼亞胡組織成員之間的聯盟並遊說他們的支持之後,宗教猶太復國主義將贏得6-7個席位,這使極右翼名單的結果高於預期。 Yamina在周二晚間表示,根據最初的退出民意調查,它必須就誰將出任總理一事進行“認真的討論”,並表示將做出“對投票給我們的公眾最好的決定”。 退出民意調查後不久,他在《以色列時報》上發表講話,表明親內塔尼亞胡集團或反內塔尼亞胡集團均未獲得61個席位,而亞米納黨將在議會120個席位的以色列議會中給任何一方以多數席位他說:“我們將希望達到最好,並根據公眾給予我們的幫助來做到最好。 巴蘇斯說:“一旦結果是最終的,我們將坐下來,認真討論對我們最有利的一票。”過去兩年來,以色列一直在政治動盪中搖擺不定。在2019年4月和2019年9月的兩輪選舉中,沒有產生勝利者,而在不到一年的時間裡,2020年3月的第三次投票後成立了一個短暫的團結政府。這次投票在很大程度上被視為對內塔尼亞胡領導層的全民公決,包括他對冠狀病毒危機的處理以及對腐敗指控的審判。 週二的投票是自2009年以來最低的投票率,截至民意調查關閉兩個小時,截至晚上8點,投票率為60.9%。投票率偏低在阿拉伯以色列人中尤其明顯。 自2019年4月以來的前三屆選舉中,投票率實際上一直在穩步上升。2019年4月的選舉投票率達到68.41%。2019年9月升至69.8%,2020年3月升至71.5%。今年,由于冠狀病毒大流行限制了海外旅行,選舉日有更多以色列人在家中。去年舉行投票時,大約有100,000名以色列人,其中大多數是年輕人。 在大流行的陰影下,星期二的投票是第二次投票。上一次是在2020年3月,這場冠狀病毒風暴只是剛剛開始,在以色列報導的病例相對較少。 自那時以來,該病毒席捲了整個國家,殺死了6000多人,並使經濟崩潰。 但是,在由內塔尼亞胡(Netanyahu)領導的世界領先的疫苗接種運動中,以色列的疫情正在逐漸減弱,他已經任職12年。自上次選舉以來,他與阿拉伯國家達成的歷史性正常化協議也​​被視為對他有利。 然而,總理將在下週開始其腐敗審判的證據階段,在那裡他將面臨賄賂,欺詐和違反信任的指控。他否認有任何不當行為。從4月5日起,每週一至三,從星期一到星期三,從上午9點到下午3:30,舉行聽證會。 選舉後,由總統邀請進入120個議會的每個政黨領袖推薦他們首選的總理。然後,總統根據這些建議選出最能組建和領導執政聯盟的人,通常由至少61名議員推薦。 總統魯文·里夫林(Reuven Rivlin)表示,他將在4月7日之前任命一名立法者,組成政府。候選人將有28天的時間來湊齊一個聯盟,並有可能尋求另外的14天的延期。 中央選舉委員會主任奧利·阿達斯(Orly Adas)上週表示,她的委員會仍在製定一項計劃,以計算選票和核實投票結果,缺席選票的數量預計將是正常數量的兩倍。為期一周的逾越節也帶來了挑戰,從選舉後的三天開始。阿達斯說,目標是在兩天內完成初步的統計。 以色列公司聲稱正在口服COVID-19疫苗 口服疫苗可能會使人們在家中自行接種疫苗。 通過MAAYAN JAFFE-HOFFMAN 2021年3月22日19:07 一家以色列美國製藥公司正準備啟動一項可能成為世界上第一種口服COVID-19疫苗的I期臨床試驗。 基於哈達薩大學醫學中心開發的技術的臨床階段製藥公司Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc.週末宣布與印度的Premas Biotech合資成立一家新型口服疫苗。他們共同組建了Oravax Medical。該疫苗基於Oramed的“ POD”口服給藥技術和Premas的疫苗技術。 Oramed的技術可用於口服施用多種基於蛋白質的療法,否則這些療法可通過注射來實現。Oramed正在通過美國食品和藥物管理局(FDA)進行的針對1型和2型糖尿病的口服胰島素膠囊的III期臨床試驗中。 自3月以來,Premas一直在研究針對新型冠狀病毒的疫苗。 據Oramed首席執行官Nadav Kidron稱,兩家公司在今年年初建立了聯繫,並很快意識到他們可以徹底改變市場。 他告訴《耶路撒冷郵報》說:“口服COVID-19疫苗將消除快速,大規模分發的幾個障礙,使人們有可能在家中自行接種疫苗。” “儘管如今易於管理對於提高接種率至關重要,但如果像標準流感疫苗那樣每年建議使用COVID-19疫苗,則口服疫苗可能會變得更加有價值。” Israeli company claims oral COVID-19 vaccine on its way An oral vaccine could potentially allow for people to self vaccinate at home. By MAAYAN JAFFE-HOFFMAN MARCH 22, 2021 19:07 An Israeli-American pharmaceutical company is preparing to launch a Phase I clinical trial for what could become the world’s first oral COVID-19 vaccine. Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc., a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company based on technology developed by Hadassah-University Medical Center, announced over the weekend a joint venture with India-based Premas Biotech to develop a novel oral vaccine. Together they formed the company Oravax Medical Inc. The vaccine is based on Oramed’s “POD” oral delivery technology and Premas’s vaccine technology.Read More Related Articles Oramed’s technology can be used to orally administer a number of protein-based therapies, which would otherwise be delivered by injection. Oramed is in the midst of a Phase III clinical trial through the US Food and Drug Administration of an oral insulin capsule for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Premas has been working on developing a vaccine against the novel coronavirus since March. Arab League urges Lebanese politicians to end political deadlock Political deadlock "aggravates the suffering of the Lebanese people." By REUTERS MARCH 23, 2021 11:09 The Arab league on Tuesday urged Lebanese politicians to work quickly to end a political deadlock in their country and offered to intervene to help Lebanon to overcome the crisis.Lebanon's financial crisis intensified on Monday, after Prime Minister-designate Saad al-Hariri and President Michel Aoun again failed to agree a government, dashing hopes for an end to five months of political bickering that has stalled efforts to reverse a financial collapse. "The Secretary-General, Mr. Ahmed Aboul Gheit, feels great concern due to the debates in the political field that suggest that the country is sliding into a severe crisis situation, the features of which are now clearly visible," the Arab league said in its statement. The organization warned that the political deadlock "aggravates the suffering of the Lebanese people," and offered "to do whatever was asked from it to heal the current rift." companies connected earlier this year and quickly realized they could revolutionize the marketplace, according to Oramed CEO Nadav Kidron. “An oral COVID-19 vaccine would eliminate several barriers to rapid, wide-scale distribution, potentially enabling people to take the vaccine themselves at home,” he told The Jerusalem Post. “While ease of administration is critical today to accelerate inoculation rates, an oral vaccine could become even more valuable in the case that a COVID-19 vaccine may be recommended annually like the standard flu shot.”Latest articles from Jpost The company completed a pilot animal study and found that the vaccine promoted the development of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and Immunoglobulin A (IgA). IgA is necessary for longer-term immunity. The new Oravax vaccine candidate targets three structural proteins of the novel coronavirus, as opposed to the single spike protein targeted via the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, Kidron said. As such, “this vaccine should be much more resistant to COVID-19 variants,” he said In addition, it is a yeast-based vaccine, making the time and cost of production much cheaper than its already approved competitors. The advantages of an oral vaccine go beyond safety and efficacy, Kidron said. Oral medications tend to have fewer side effects. In addition, the vaccine can be shipped at refrigerator temperatures and even stored at room temperature, “making it logistically easier to get it anywhere around the world,” Kidron said. Finally, an oral vaccine would not require professional administration. Oravax anticipates commencing a clinical study during the second quarter of 2021. It is applying for trials in multiple countries, including the United States, Israel, Europe and Mexico, Kidron said. It hopes to also target Africa, where such an oral vaccine could prove essential. Kidron said he expects Phase I human trial data to be available within three months. In February 2020, shortly after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, another Israeli team began development on what they hoped would be an oral coronavirus vaccine. Scientists from the Galilee Research Institute’s biotechnology group said they were primed to develop their vaccine within a few months. They had been developing a vaccine against avian coronavirus, which had been proven effective in preclinical trials, and they believed it would translate to a human vaccine. Despite a commitment by the Science and Technology Ministry to fast-track approval of the vaccine and a $12 million investment by OurCrowd, the vaccine has yet to come to market. The Post contacted the institute’s researchers and representatives several times in recent months for a status update, but none was provided.治僵局 政治僵局“加劇了黎巴嫩人民的苦難”。 在阿拉伯在週二的聯賽敦促黎巴嫩政界人士迅速開展工作,以結束政治僵局在他們的國家,並表示願意進行干預,以幫助黎巴嫩克服危機。週一,候任總理的薩阿德·哈里裡(Saad al-Hariri)和總統米歇爾·奧恩(Michel Aoun)再次未能達成一致,黎巴嫩的金融危機加劇。人們對結束為期五個月的政治爭端的希望破滅了。 阿拉伯聯盟說:“由於政治領域的辯論表明該國正陷入嚴重的危機局勢,秘書長艾哈邁德·阿卜杜勒·蓋特先生(Mr. Ahmed Aboul Gheit)感到非常關切,”在其聲明中。 該組織警告說,政治僵局“加劇了黎巴嫩人民的苦難”,並表示“應盡一切努力醫治當前的裂痕”。 該公司完成了一項動物實驗研究,發現該疫苗促進了免疫球蛋白G(IgG)抗體和免疫球蛋白A(IgA)的發展。IgA是長期免疫所必需的。 Kidron說,新的Oravax疫苗候選物靶向新型冠狀病毒的三種結構蛋白,而與Moderna和Pfizer疫苗靶向的單一刺突蛋白相反。因此,“這種疫苗應該對COVID-19變種具有更大的抵抗力,”他說 此外,它是一種基於酵母的疫苗,與已經批准的競爭者相比,其生產時間和生產成本要便宜得多。 Kidron說,口服疫苗的優點超出了安全性和有效性。口服藥物副作用較小。 此外,該疫苗可以在冰箱溫度下運輸,甚至可以在室溫下存儲,“從邏輯上講,它更容易在世界各地得到它,” Kidron說。 最後,口服疫苗不需要專業的管理。 Kidron說,Oravax預計將於2021年第二季度開始一項臨床研究。它正在多個國家(包括美國,以色列,歐洲和墨西哥)申請試驗。它希望也針對非洲,在那裡這種口服疫苗可能被證明是必不可少的。 基德龍說,他希望第一階段的人體試驗數據能夠在三個月內獲得。 2020年2月,在COVID-19大流行開始後不久,另一個以色列小組開始研發他們希望的口服冠狀病毒疫苗。伽利略研究所生物技術小組的科學家說,他們準備在幾個月內開發出自己的疫苗。 他們一直在開發針對禽冠狀病毒的疫苗,該疫苗已在臨床前試驗中被證明是有效的,他們相信它將轉化為人類疫苗。儘管科學技術部已承諾快速批准該疫苗,並由OurCrowd投資1200萬美元,但該疫苗尚未上市。 近幾個月來, 《郵政》 多次聯繫該研究所的研究人員和代表,以更新狀態,但未提供任何信息。

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