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2021.08.29 國際新聞導讀-拜登見以色列總理班耐特暢談多項議題、塔利班是否能搞定伊斯蘭國不再攻擊令人懷疑、真主黨打算接管黎巴嫩能源供應並從伊朗搞來更多汽油柴油

外交官的國際新聞導覽及中東中亞的歷史故事 Diplomat's daily news review and history research on Middle East and Central Asia
2021-08-28
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2021.08.29 國際新聞導讀-拜登見以色列總理班耐特暢談多項議題、塔利班是否能搞定伊斯蘭國不再攻擊令人懷疑、真主黨打算接管黎巴嫩能源供應並從伊朗搞來更多汽油柴油 貝內特:拜登愛以色列;Delta變種被打敗後我邀請他去拜訪 PM告訴記者,他發現美國總統在“精彩的會議”中非常“關注我們的需求”;讚揚他遏制伊朗的承諾,但警告說:“時間不多了” 通過拉扎爾·伯曼和雅各布·馬吉德今天,上午 12:34 2021 年 8 月 27 日,總理納夫塔利·貝內特(右)和美國總統喬·拜登在白宮私人總統餐廳喝咖啡。(白宮/推特) 華盛頓——總理納夫塔利·貝內特 (Naftali Bennett) 週五表示,在與美國總統喬·拜登 (Joe Biden) 會晤期間,他邀請他在大流行消退後訪問以色列。 “在我們擊敗德爾塔變種後,我邀請總統訪問以色列,”貝內特在向與他一起前往華盛頓的以色列記者的簡報中說。以色列一直在推動第三次注射助推器以克服可能破壞疫苗接種運動取得的進展的變體方面處於領先地位。 貝內特強調他與拜登的會晤進展順利。 “這是一次美妙的會議,尤其是一對一的會議,”他說。“這主要是一次工作會議。有一種感覺,我們已經認識很久了。我找到了一位熱愛以色列的領導者,他清楚地知道自己想要什麼,並且關注我們的需求。” 總理說,即使在喀布爾爆炸迫使原定於週四舉行的會議取消之後,拜登仍堅持要確保它仍然發生並重新安排在第二天。 貝內特說:“我真的很感謝總統和他的全體工作人員決心召開這次會議,”他稱讚拜登政府“在復雜的美國事件的高峰期表現出的關注和專注”。 總理說,他很高興聽到拜登堅持認為伊朗永遠不會獲得核武器。 廣告 “拜登總統和我都決心伊朗永遠不會擁有核武器。我很高興我們就目標達成一致。我們的員工將在未來幾天、幾周和幾個月內努力開發合作渠道,”他說。 “但我必須說時間不多了。這個話題很緊迫,不能被擱置一旁,”貝內特補充道。 在兩人在橢圓形辦公室發表的公開講話中,拜登仍然澄清說,他更喜歡通過外交途徑來阻止伊朗獲得炸彈的道路,即恢復聯合全​​面行動計劃。但是,他表示,如果這些談判失敗,將尋求“其他選擇”。 後來被問及其他選項的含義,白宮新聞秘書 Jen Psaki 拒絕詳細說明。以色列一直在敦促美國在談判遏制其核努力的同時,將對伊朗提出“可信的軍事威脅”。 拜登在持續約 50 分鐘的一對一會談後與貝內特一起對記者說,兩位領導人的團隊將討論“我們在美國對以色列安全的堅定承諾”以及“方式”。促進以色列人和巴勒斯坦人的和平與安全。” 拜登補充說,美國支持以色列與其阿拉伯和穆斯林鄰國發展“更深層次的關係”,儘管他沒有使用“亞伯拉罕協議”一詞,這似乎是政府對前任政府調解的交易的政策。 廣告 這位美國領導人還承諾補充以色列的鐵穹導彈防禦系統,該系統在 5 月與加沙哈馬斯的 11 天沖突中被大量使用。他說他會指示他的團隊努力讓以色列加入美國免簽證計劃,“並完成這項工作。” 貝內特感謝拜登對以色列的支持,尤其是在五月衝突期間。 “那才是真正考驗友誼的地方,”他說。“而且以色列知道,我們在世界上沒有比美利堅合眾國更好或更可靠的盟友。” 他回到了他在訪問期間所表達的主題,即以色列政府將帶著“新的善意精神……希望、正派和誠實的精神、團結和兩黨合作的精神”到來。 他說以色列看起來在世界上做好事,但補充說“在我們地區,做好事是不夠的”,理由是伊斯蘭國、真主黨、伊斯蘭聖戰組織、哈馬斯和伊朗民兵構成的威脅。 “以色列必須強大才能做好事……我們在世界上最艱難的地區,一刻也不能忘記。” 他感謝拜登“再次幫助鞏固以色列的戰略優勢”。 納夫塔利·貝內特總理於 2021 年 8 月 27 日在白宮會見美國總統喬·拜登。 (GPO) 兩位領導人開始聲明,承認伊斯蘭國星期四在阿富汗喀布爾發動的致命恐怖襲擊導致數十名阿富汗人和至少 13 名美國軍人死亡。拜登說,“我們的心與所有在阿富汗失去的人同在”,同時誓言要在該國“完成使命”。 拜登說:“總理和我稍微談了談,他是一名軍人,參戰並失去了一個朋友。” 貝內特代表以色列人民向美國表示“哀悼和深切悲傷”。他說,被殺害的美國士兵是為了挽救生命,這是“勇氣和犧牲的真正定義。願他們安息。” 廣告 他說,特別是在這一天,他想強調以色列“始終明確地與美利堅合眾國站在一起”。 貝內特感謝拜登承諾確保伊朗永遠不會獲得核彈,以及如果談判無法達成協議,他願意考慮其他途徑。 兩人還提到了以色列和美國為 COVID-19 接種疫苗的運動,尤其是兩國在加強注射方面所做的努力。以色列幾週前開始進行第三次注射,本週擴大了對 30 歲以上任何人的資格。美國計劃在 9 月中旬開始提供助推器。 注意到他上個月做出的“艱難的決定”,即在其他國家之前率先向以色列人分發第三劑助推劑,貝內特說:“總統先生,我可以向你報告,並向我們幾乎接觸到的每個人報告300 萬以色列人接受了加強注射。最重要的是,它是安全的並且有效。最後,好消息是以色列的潮流正在轉變。” 2021 年 8 月 27 日星期五,納夫塔利·貝內特總理在華盛頓白宮橢圓形辦公室會見美國總統喬·拜登時發表講話。(GPO) 目前尚不清楚貝內特給出的數字來自哪裡,根據衛生部的數據,到目前為止,已經註射了大約 190 萬次加強劑。 在總結他的講話時,貝內特引用了聖經先知以賽亞的話,拜登星期四在喀布爾爆炸後也引用了他的話。 “你要舉目四望,這一切都聚集到你這裡來。耶和華說,在我活著的時候,你要把它們全都給你穿上,好像戴上裝飾品,把它們束起來,像新娘一樣,”他用希伯來語說。 談到翻譯,貝內特開玩笑說:“我現在可以說什麼了,對吧?” 在繼續說:“這 [段落] 的意思是,猶太人的兒女將回到我們的土地上,將照料我們古老的土地並重建它。而這個古老的猶太預言就是今天以色列的現實。這麼多年以來,你一直如此重要,並成為其中的一部分,真是一個奇蹟。” 他補充說:“你和我將在我們兩國友誼的美麗故事中再寫一章。” 拜登指出,感謝貝內特的話,應該歸功於他的前任老闆、前總統巴拉克奧巴馬,他在以色列並不是一個特別受歡迎的人物,“他確保我們致力於實現相對於你的公司的質量優勢。該地區的朋友。所以,他是值得稱讚的人。” Bennett 說:“也謝謝他。” Bennett: Biden loves Israel; I invited him to visit after Delta variant defeated PM tells reporters he found US president very ‘attentive to our needs’ in ‘wonderful meeting;’ praises his commitment to curb Iran, but warns: ‘there isn’t a lot of time’ By LAZAR BERMAN and JACOB MAGIDToday, 12:34 am Prime Minister Naftali Bennett (R) and US President Joe Biden have coffee in the White House private presidential dining hall on Aug. 27, 2021. (White House/Twitter) WASHINGTON — Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said Friday that during his meeting with US President Joe Biden he extended an invitation for him to visit Israel after the pandemic has subsided. “I invited the president to Israel after we defeat the Delta variant,” Bennett said in a briefing to the Israeli reporters who traveled with him to Washington. Israel has been leading the way in pushing third-shot boosters to overcome the variant that threatened to undo the progress achieved by the vaccination campaign. Bennett was emphatic about how well his meeting with Biden had gone. “It was a wonderful meeting, especially the one-on-one,” he said. “It was mostly a working meeting. There was a feeling that we’ve known each other for a long time. I found a leader who loves Israel, who knows exactly what he wants, and is attentive to our needs.” The premier said that even after the blast in Kabul forced the cancellation of the meeting originally scheduled for Thursday, Biden had been adamant about making sure it still happened and rescheduling it for the next day. “I am truly grateful to the president and his entire staff for their determination to carry out the meeting,” Bennett said, praising the Biden administration for its “attentiveness and focus at the height of a complex American incident.” The prime minister said he was pleased to hear Biden’s insistence that Iran will never acquire a nuclear weapon. ADVERTISEMENT “Both President Biden and I are determined that Iran won’t ever get a nuclear weapon. I am happy that we agree on the goal. Our staffs will work in the coming days, weeks, and months to develop channels of cooperation,” he said. “But I must say there isn’t a lot of time. The subject is urgent, and cannot be pushed aside,” Bennett added. During public remarks the two gave in the Oval Office, Biden still clarified that he prefers a diplomatic approach to block Iran’s path to the bomb, namely the revival of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. However, he said that “other options” would be pursued if those negotiations failed. Later pressed on what was meant by other options, White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki declined to elaborate. Israel has been pushing the US to put a “credible military threat” against Iran on the table while negotiating to curb its nuclear efforts. Speaking along with Bennett to reporters after their one-on-one meeting, which lasted about 50 minutes, Biden said the two leaders’ teams would discuss “the unwavering commitment that we have in the United States to Israel’s security” as well as “ways to advance peace and security for Israelis and Palestinians.” Biden added that the US supported Israel developing “deeper ties” with its Arab and Muslim neighbors, though he did not use the term “Abraham Accords,” as seems to be administration policy toward the deals mediated by the previous administration. ADVERTISEMENT The American leader also committed to replenishing Israel’s Iron Dome missile defense system, which saw heavy use during May’s 11-day conflict with Hamas in Gaza. And he said he’d direct his team to work toward getting Israel into the US visa waiver program, “and get that done.” Bennett thanked Biden for his support of Israel, especially during the May conflict. “That’s where friendship is really tested,” he said. “And Israel knows that we have no better or more reliable ally in the world than the United States of America.” He returned to the theme he has expressed throughout his visit, that the Israeli government is coming with a “new spirit of goodwill… of hope, a spirit of decency and honesty, a spirit of unity and bipartisanship.” He said that Israel looks to do good in the world, but added that “in our region, doing good is not enough,” citing the threats posed by Islamic State, Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad, Hamas and Iranian militias. “Israel has to be strong in order to do good… and we cannot lose sight for even one moment that we’re in the toughest neighborhood in the world.” He thanked Biden for “helping yet again to fortify Israel’s strategic advantage.” Prime Minister Naftali Bennett meets with US President Joe Biden in the White House on August 27, 2021. (GPO) Both leaders opened their statements acknowledging Thursday’s deadly terrorist attack by the Islamic State in Kabul, Afghanistan, which led to the deaths of dozens of Afghans and at least 13 US servicemembers. Biden said that “our hearts go out to all those we’ve lost” in Afghanistan while vowing to “complete the mission” in the country. “The prime minister and I talked about it slightly,” said Biden, “and he’s a military man, gone to war and lost a friend.” Bennett offered his “condolences and deep sadness” on behalf of the Israeli people to the US. He said the US soldiers killed were there to save lives and that this was “the very definition of courage and sacrifice. May they rest in peace.” ADVERTISEMENT Especially on this day, he said, he wanted to stress that Israel “always stands together with the United State of America unequivocally.” Bennet thanked Biden for his commitment to ensuring Iran never gets a nuclear bomb, and his openness to considering other paths if talks do not lead to a deal. The two also mentioned the Israeli and American campaigns to vaccinate against COVID-19, and particularly both nations’ efforts to administer booster shots. Israeli began giving third shots several weeks ago and this week widened eligibility to anyone above age 30. The US is planning to start giving boosters in mid-September. Noting the “tough decision” he made last month to pioneer the distribution of a third booster shot for Israelis before other countries did so, Bennett said: “I can report to you, Mr. President, and to everyone that we’ve reached almost three million Israelis that have received the booster shot. And the bottom line is, it’s safe and it works. The good news, finally, is that the tide is turning in Israel.” Prime Minister Naftali Bennett speaks as he meets with US President Joe Biden in the Oval Office of the White House, Friday, Aug. 27, 2021, in Washington. (GPO) It was not clear where the figure given by Bennett came from, as according to Health Ministry figures, some 1.9 million boosters have been administered so far. Concluding his remarks, Bennett quoted from the biblical prophet Isaiah, from whom Biden also quoted Thursday following the Kabul blast. “Lift up thine eyes round about and behold: all these gather themselves together, and come to thee. As I live, saith the LORD, thou shalt surely clothe thee with them all as with an ornament, and gird thyself with them, like a bride,” he said in Hebrew. Turning to translate, Bennett joked, “I can say anything now, right?” before going on to say: “What this [passage] means is the sons and daughters of the Jewish people are going to come back to our land, are going to nurse our ancient land and rebuild it. And this ancient Jewish prophecy is today Israel’s reality. And it’s a miracle that you’ve been so central and so part of it for so many years.” He added: “You and I are going to write yet another chapter in the beautiful story of the friendship between our two nations.” Thanking Bennett for his words, Biden noted, that much credit should go to his former boss, ex-president Barack Obama, not an especially popular figure in Israel, “for making sure that we committed to that qualitative edge you would have relative to your friends in the region. So, he’s the one who deserves the credit.” To which Bennett said: “Thank him as well.” 在喀布爾混亂的陰影下,貝內特告訴拜登為什麼美國必須繼續參與該地區 想像一下,整個世界將面臨的“核噩夢”是激進的伊斯蘭主義者獲得炸彈,總理告訴一位被阿富汗動搖和流血的總統 由戴維·霍羅維茨 2021 年 8 月 27 日,晚上 10:16 2021 年 8 月 27 日星期五,美國總統喬·拜登在華盛頓特區白宮橢圓形辦公室會見了總理納夫塔利·貝內特。(美聯社照片/埃文武奇) 從他們的聯合聲明來看,納夫塔利·貝內特總理與美國總統喬·拜登的第一次會面被推遲並被周四喀布爾機場的毀滅性襲擊所蒙上陰影,但與這位以色列新領導人的預期一樣好。 在公共政策目標方面,拜登並沒有在巴勒斯坦問題上讓他感到不安,承諾支持以色列在該地區及其他地區的進一步和平協議,承諾補充以色列的鐵穹供應,重申美國對以色列地區質量軍事優勢的承諾,並強調美國對以色列“不可動搖”的承諾。 至關重要的是,當拜登向關注的世界發誓美國“永遠”不會允許伊朗獲得核武器時,貝內特愉快地聽著。拜登指出,雖然他的政府更願意通過外交來實現這一目標,但它對“如果行不通的其他選擇”持開放態度。 在他們一對一和更廣泛的團隊會議中,貝內特的目標是重塑美國和以色列在伊朗問題上的動態。在他的前任本傑明·內塔尼亞胡(Benjamin Netanyahu)的領導下——他的陰影籠罩在周五的會議上,因為它籠罩著貝內特在他擔任總理的頭幾個月所做的大部分事情——美國和以色列在如何阻止阿亞圖拉方面公開存在分歧。 相比之下,這位新任總理告訴拜登,他帶著一種“新精神”來到華盛頓,包括善意、希望、正派、誠實、團結和兩黨合作。無論 2015 年的核協議是否恢復,他的目標將是將這種新精神轉變為針對德黑蘭政權的複興戰略聯盟——在伊朗越來越接近核協議時就如何應對伊朗達成共識。能力,以及它是否以及何時試圖引爆炸彈。 就個人而言,再次在內塔尼亞胡的陰影下,貝內特在會議上表現出沉著和清晰——他代表所有以色列人對阿富汗的生命損失表示哀悼,強調以色列對拜登長期以來對以色列的支持表示讚賞,並欣然接受支持總統對巴拉克奧巴馬的熱情言辭,因為他確保美國保持以色列對敵人的戰略軍事優勢。 敏銳的是,在美國及其領導層這個嚴峻的一周裡,貝內特還找到了有效的話來強調以色列不會要求來自美國或任何其他國家的軍隊為我們冒生命危險,而是非常依賴美國的外交支持和軍事援助。 廣告 這次會議是 12 年來第一次在白宮舉行的會議,涉及一位不是本傑明內塔尼亞胡的以色列總理。貝內特的父母在美國出生,在對媒體的簡短講話中,他表明,他的前任並不是唯一能在世界舞台上講流利英語的以色列領導人。 2021 年 8 月 27 日星期五,以色列總理納夫塔利·貝內特在華盛頓白宮橢圓形辦公室會見總統喬·拜登時發表講話。(美聯社照片/埃文武奇) 對貝內特來說,這次會議在政治上並不是一場本壘打。原定的周四峰會恰逢國內黃金時段晚間新聞發布。星期五的延遲和可以理解的較短會議在以色列安息日之前開始,在安息日開始之後向媒體播放了聯合講話。 因此,考慮到他領導的是相對較小的政黨 Yamina,貝內特 (Bennett) 成為總理的道路特別不可能,他錯過了給選民和潛在選民留下深刻印象的機會:他是東正教,他們中的大多數是東正教,他們不會違反安息日看他在電視上直播。 2021 年 8 月 26 日喀布爾機場外發生兩起致命爆炸後,志願者和醫務人員從醫院外的一輛皮卡車上卸下屍體。(Wakil KOHSAR / AFP) 然而,對總理和以色列國來說,最重要的不是周五峰會的公開情況,甚至不是幕後達成的共識。相反,它與美國在這個重要盟友參與該地區的關鍵時刻的政策和行動有關。 貝內特正在會見一位陷入美國從阿富汗撤軍的致命災難中的總統。政府越來越未能執行遠程有序的撤離,這本身就是其嚴重未能預測這種撤離將如何發生的後果,正在嚴重削弱其在美國的朋友和敵人以及我們之間的可信度。 貝內特和拜登公開慶祝他們的新友誼,並承諾我們國家對彼此的承諾。但是,即使在美國成為當前這一致命、痛苦事件的核心之前,美國在世界這一地區的參與的性質就已經發生了變化,現在不確定性和擔憂更加嚴重。 廣告 喬·拜登總統於 2021 年 8 月 27 日星期五在華盛頓白宮橢圓形辦公室會見以色列總理納夫塔利·貝內特時聆聽。(美聯社照片/埃文武奇) 貝內特在他的言論中煞費苦心地強調,以色列被尋求殲滅的敵人包圍,“哪怕一刻都不能忽視我們身處世界上最艱難的地區。” 但他也試圖就美國在面臨極端主義敵人(伊朗等國家和伊斯蘭聖戰組織等恐怖組織)的威脅時的福祉提出類似觀點,他指出,“這些日子說明了什麼?如果一個激進的伊斯蘭政權獲得了核武器,世界就會變成這樣:這場婚姻對整個世界來說將是一場核噩夢。” 總理敦促總統不要讓美國背棄這個地區——為了以色列,但同時也強調,為了美國。如果他們週五的會談有助於讓拜登和他的團隊相信這一持久的共同要求,那將真正取得成功。 In shadow of Kabul chaos, Bennett tells Biden why US must stay engaged in region Imagine the ‘nuclear nightmare’ the whole world would face were radical Islamists to acquire the bomb, the PM tells a president shaken and bloodied by Afghanistan By DAVID HOROVITZ 27 August 2021, 10:16 pm US President Joe Biden meets with Prime Minister Naftali Bennett in the Oval Office of the White House, on Friday, August 27, 2021, in Washington, DC. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci) To judge by their joint statements, Prime Minister Naftali Bennett’s first meeting with US President Joe Biden, delayed and utterly overshadowed by the devastating attack at Kabul airport on Thursday, went just about as well as could be expected for the rookie Israeli leader. In terms of public policy goals, Biden didn’t discomfit him on the Palestinian issue, pledged support for further Israeli peace deals in the region and beyond, promised to replenish Israel’s Iron Dome supplies, restated the US commitment to Israel’s regional qualitative military edge, and stressed the “unshakeable” American commitment to Israel. Crucially, Bennett listened happily as Biden vowed to the watching world that the US would “never” allow Iran to acquire nuclear weapons. While his administration preferred to achieve this via diplomacy, Biden noted, it was open to “other options if that doesn’t work out.” In their one-on-one and wider team meetings, Bennett will have been aiming to remake the American-Israeli dynamic on Iran. Under his predecessor Benjamin Netanyahu — whose shadow loomed over Friday’s meeting, as it looms over most everything Bennett does in these first months of his prime ministership — the US and Israel were openly at odds about how to stop the ayatollahs. The fresh prime minister, by contrast, told Biden he had come to Washington with a “new spirit” encompassing goodwill, hope, decency, honesty, unity and bipartisanship. And his goal will have been to turn that new spirit into a revived strategic alliance against the regime in Tehran, whether or not the 2015 nuclear deal is revived — with joint understandings on how to deal with Iran as it moves ever-closer to a nuclear capability, and if and when it tries to break out to the bomb. Personally, again in the shadow of Netanyahu, Bennett demonstrated poise and articulacy in the meeting — setting the appropriate tone with his condolences on behalf of all Israelis for the loss of life in Afghanistan, stressing Israel’s appreciation for Biden’s longstanding support of Israel, and readily endorsing the president’s warm words for Barack Obama as the man to thank for ensuring that the US maintains Israel’s strategic military advantage over its enemies. Astutely, in this grim week for the US and its leadership, Bennett also found effective words to highlight that Israel does not ask troops from America or any other country to put their lives on the line for us, but does depend profoundly on American diplomatic support and military assistance. ADVERTISEMENT This meeting was the first at the White House in over 12 years involving an Israeli premier whose name is not Benjamin Netanyahu. In their brief remarks to the press, Bennett, whose parents were born in the US, demonstrated that his predecessor is not the only Israeli leader who can manage fluent English on the world stage. Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett speaks as he meets with President Joe Biden in the Oval Office of the White House, Friday, Aug. 27, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci) Politically for Bennett, the meeting wasn’t quite a home run. The intended Thursday summit would have coincided with the primetime evening news back home. Friday’s delayed and understandably shorter session began just before Shabbat in Israel, and the joint remarks to the media were broadcast after Shabbat had begun here. Thus Bennett, whose path to the premiership was particularly improbable given that he heads the relatively small political party Yamina, missed the opportunity to impress his voters and potential voters: He’s Orthodox, most of them are Orthodox, and they would not have been breaching the Sabbath to see him live on TV. Volunteers and medical staff unload bodies from a pickup truck outside a hospital after two deadly blasts outside the airport in Kabul on August 26, 2021. (Wakil KOHSAR / AFP) What is most important for the prime minister and the State of Israel, however, is not how well Friday’s summit went publicly, or even what was agreed behind the scenes. Rather, it relates to US policy and action at this crucial juncture for our vital ally’s involvement in the region. Bennett was meeting with a president caught in the midst of the deadly debacle of US withdrawal from Afghanistan. The administration’s deepening failure to carry out a remotely orderly departure, itself a consequence of its striking failure to predict how that departure would play out, are profoundly undermining its credibility — among America’s friends and enemies, and among ours. Bennett and Biden publicly celebrated their new friendship and pledged our countries’ commitment to each other. But the nature of the United States’ engagement in this part of the world was changing even before it found itself in the heart of this current deadly, bitter episode, and the uncertainty and concern are all the greater now. ADVERTISEMENT President Joe Biden listens as he meets with Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett in the Oval Office of the White House, Friday, Aug. 27, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci) Bennett took pains to stress in his remarks that Israel, surrounded by enemies that seek its annihilation, “cannot lose sight for even one moment that we’re in the toughest neighborhood in the world.” But he also sought to make a similar point about the United States’ well-being in the face of threats it faces from its extremist enemies — states like Iran, and terrorist organizations such as Islamic Jihad— by noting that “these very days illustrate what the world would look like if a radical Islamic regime acquired a nuclear weapon: that marriage would be a nuclear nightmare for the entire world.” The prime minister was urging the president not to turn America’s back on this neighborhood — for Israel’s sake, but also, emphatically, for America’s. If their talks Friday helped convince Biden and his team of that abiding joint imperative, it truly will have been a success. 現在掌權的塔利班在致命的爆炸事件後面臨著保衛喀布爾的挑戰 在長期聲稱它會帶來和平之後,叛亂組織現在被指控釋放伊斯蘭國的數十名成員,該組織實施了機場襲擊 作者:大衛·福克斯和大衛·斯托特2021 年 8 月 27 日,下午 3:24 2021 年 8 月 26 日,喀布爾機場外發生兩起致命爆炸後,受傷婦女抵達醫院接受治療。(Wakil KOHSAR / 法新社) 阿富汗喀布爾(法新社)——塔利班對阿富汗人民的宣傳一直很簡單——在他們強硬統治下的生活最終會在幾十年的戰爭之後帶來安全。 塔利班因在叛亂期間使用自殺式炸彈襲擊而臭名昭著,現在他們掌權的塔利班被指控防範同樣類型的襲擊。 伊斯蘭國聲稱星期四在喀布爾機場發生爆炸,造成至少 95 名阿富汗人和 13 名美軍喪生,這是一次早期試驗。 “昨晚的襲擊再次表明,沒有任何組織可以聲稱壟斷阿富汗的暴力或聲稱確保其安全,”新加坡拉惹勒南國際研究學院的研究員阿卜杜勒·巴西特說。 塔利班發言人比拉爾·卡里米在襲擊發生後告訴法新社,IS“將被擊敗”。 但他們迴避了自己在釋放一些囚犯方面的作用。 在以 8 月 15 日占領喀布爾而告終的塔利班閃電戰中,出現了一種熟悉的模式——當每個城市陷落時,聖戰分子都會前往監獄。 越獄狂歡 阿富汗各地有數千名經驗豐富的塔利班戰士被關在監獄裡,這種策略的重點是讓該組織補充他們枯竭的隊伍。 廣告 但與塔利班的喜好相反,包括來自伊斯蘭國阿富汗-巴基斯坦分會(IS-K)的久經沙場的武裝分子在內的其他人也被釋放。 2021 年 8 月 27 日,一名塔利班戰士在喀布爾機場的 8 月 26 日雙胞胎自殺炸彈現場守衛,該炸彈炸死了包括 13 名美軍在內的數十人。(WAKIL KOHSAR / 法新社) 雙方來自強硬聖戰思想的不同神學分支,多年來一直在阿富汗的血腥衝突中決一死戰。 越獄狂歡越來越像是一個致命的錯誤——用塔利班的敵人在未來的戰場上播種,而他們自己的力量卻很薄弱。 在喀布爾機場襲擊之前,塔利班已經試圖與監獄崩潰保持距離,將責任歸咎於逃離該國的前總統阿什拉夫加尼。 2021 年 8 月 18 日,在塔利班軍事接管阿富汗後,塔利班戰士站在喀布爾的一條公路上。(Wakil KOHSAR / 法新社) 塔利班發言人 Suhail Shaheen 本週對巴基斯坦廣播公司 Geo News 說:“我們非常謹慎,因為伊斯蘭國的囚犯逃離監獄,在喀布爾政府官員棄職後現在躲藏起來。” 沙欣說,塔利班知道該組織構成迫在眉睫的威脅的報導,因為一系列西方政府警告說,IS 的目標是該機場。 廣告 沙欣補充說:“我們的情報部門和安全部隊正在積極行動,以避免發生可能導致人員傷亡的事件。” 安全失敗 塔利班也將矛頭指向華盛頓,稱爆炸地區的安全由美國控制。 他們的戰鬥機繼續在通往機場的檢查站網絡中執勤,但一個鬆散安全的無人區將他們與駐守大門的美軍分開。 隨著美國人在幾天內撤出,塔利班將沒有任何藉口繼續前進。 在 1990 年代的最後一次統治期間以及近年來塔利班控制的地區,這個強硬的伊斯蘭組織以迅速而嚴厲地伸張正義而聞名——這與它被推翻的政府不同。 但無法防止未來的爆炸事件可能會侵蝕他們自佔領首都以來獲得的一點點公眾信任。 2021 年 8 月 25 日,分配給第 82 空降師第 1 旅戰鬥隊的美國傘兵在繼續幫助疏散阿富汗喀布爾的哈米德卡爾扎伊國際機場時進行安保。(國防部通過美聯社) 駐澳大利亞的阿富汗分析家尼尚克·莫特瓦尼 (Nishank Motwani) 表示:“遍布該市的塔利班檢查站未能抓住喀布爾機場襲擊的肇事者。” “但這是基於塔利班首先打算提供安全以保護生命的假設。” IS 和塔利班之間沒有失去愛情,機場襲擊事件暴露了敵對的聖戰組織之間長達數年的鬥爭。 IS-K 對近年來發生的一些最致命的襲擊負責,包括在清真寺、學校、集會甚至醫院發生的一系列可怕的爆炸事件。 廣告 然而,塔利班仍然相信他們有能力讓該組織屈服,即使在周四晚上的機場大屠殺之後,他們也想說服阿富汗人在他們的統治下他們會是安全的。 “人們應該停止離開阿富汗和出國,”塔利班發言人卡里米說。“他們現在安全了。” Now in power, Taliban faces challenge of securing Kabul after deadly bombings After long claiming it would bring peace, the insurgent group is now accused of releasing scores of members of Islamic State, the group that carried out the airport attack By DAVID FOX and DAVID STOUT27 August 2021, 3:24 pm Wounded women arrive at a hospital for treatment after two deadly blasts outside the airport in Kabul on August 26, 2021. (Wakil KOHSAR / AFP) KABUL, Afghanistan (AFP) — The Taliban’s pitch to the Afghan people has always been simple — life under their hardline rule would finally bring security after decades of war. Notorious for using suicide bombers during their insurgency, the Taliban are charged with guarding against the same kind of attacks now that they are in power. The Islamic State-claimed blasts at Kabul airport on Thursday, which killed at least 95 Afghans as well as 13 US troops, is an early test. “Last night’s attacks have shown once again that no one group can claim monopoly over violence in Afghanistan or claim to secure it,” said Abdul Basit, a research Fellow at S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore. Taliban spokesman Bilal Karimi told AFP after the attack that IS “will be defeated.” But they sidestepped their own role in freeing some its prisoners. Clothes and blood stains of Afghan people who were waiting to be evacuated are seen at the site of the August 26 twin suicide bombs, which killed scores of people including 13 US troops, at Kabul airport on August 27, 2021. (WAKIL KOHSAR / AFP) During the Taliban blitz, which ended with the takeover of Kabul on August 15, a familiar pattern emerged — when each city fell, the jihadists would head for the prisons. Spree of prison breaks With thousands of seasoned Taliban fighters behind bars across Afghanistan, the tactic focused on allowing the group to replenish their depleted ranks. ADVERTISEMENT But contrary to the Taliban’s liking, others including battle-hardened militants from the Islamic State’s Afghanistan-Pakistan chapter (IS-K) were also freed. A Taliban fighter stands guard at the site of the August 26 twin suicide bombs, which killed scores of people including 13 US troops, at Kabul airport on August 27, 2021. (WAKIL KOHSAR / AFP) Hailing from different theological branches of hardline jihadist thought, the two sides have duked it out in bloody clashes for years in Afghanistan. The spree of prison breaks increasingly looks to have been a lethal error — seeding the future battlefield with the Taliban’s enemies, while their own forces are stretched thin. Before the Kabul airport attack, the Taliban were already trying to distance themselves from the prison debacle, piling blame on former president Ashraf Ghani who has fled the country. Taliban fighters stand along a road in Kabul on August 18, 2021, after the Taliban’s military takeover of Afghanistan. (Wakil KOHSAR / AFP) “We are cautious and careful because prisoners from Daesh (IS) fled the jail and are hiding now after officials of the Kabul administration abandoned their posts,” Taliban spokesman Suhail Shaheen told Pakistani broadcaster Geo News this week. Shaheen said the Taliban were aware of reports of the imminent threat posed by the group, as a string of Western governments warned IS was aiming to target the airport. ADVERTISEMENT “Our intelligence department and security forces are active in order to avoid such an incident which can cause loss of human lives,” Shaheen added. Security failure The Taliban has also pointed the finger at Washington, saying the security in the area of the blasts was controlled by the US. Their fighters continue to man a network of checkpoints leading to the airport but a loosely secured no man’s land separates them from the American troops manning the gates. With the Americans pulling out in a matter of days, the Taliban will have few excuses moving forward. During its last rule in the 1990s and in areas controlled by the Taliban over recent years, the hardline Islamist group has been known for handing out swift but heavy-handed justice — unlike the government it has ousted. But the inability to prevent future bombings may erode the little public trust they have secured since capturing the capital. US paratroopers assigned to the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division conduct security as they continue to help facilitate the evacuation at Hamid Karzai International Airport in Kabul, Afghanistan, August 25, 2021. (Department of Defense via AP) “Taliban checkpoints that dot around the city failed to catch the perpetrators of the Kabul airport attack,” said Nishank Motwani, an Afghan analyst based in Australia. “But that’s based on the assumption the Taliban intended to provide security in the first place to protect lives.” There is no love lost between IS and the Taliban, with the airport attacks laying bare a years-long fight between the rival jihadist outfits. IS-K has been responsible for some of the deadliest attacks of recent years including a string of gruesome blasts at mosques, schools, rallies, and even hospitals. ADVERTISEMENT The Taliban, however, remained confident of their ability to bring the group to heel, and even after Thursday night’s airport carnage they want to convince Afghans they will be safe under their rule. “People should stop leaving Afghanistan and going abroad,” Taliban spokesman Karimi said. “They are safe now.” PA:拜登對兩國解決方案的承諾很好,但還不夠 拜登在與貝內特會晤期間的公開聲明中沒有提到兩國解決方案,但在會後白宮發表的官方聲明中提到了兩國解決方案。 由哈利·阿布·托梅 2021 年 8 月 28 日 20:16 2016 年 3 月 9 日,美國副總統喬·拜登在約旦河西岸城市拉馬拉會見了巴勒斯坦總統馬哈茂德·阿巴斯。 (圖片來源:路透社/黛比山/游泳池) 廣告 巴勒斯坦官員周六對美國總統喬拜登重新致力於兩國解決方案表示滿意,但表示他們對他沒有要求立即停止定居點建設和以色列對巴勒斯坦人的“襲擊”感到失望。 官員們在評論拜登和總理納夫塔利·貝內特週五在華盛頓舉行的會晤時表示,希望總統能夠通過向以色列施加壓力,要求其遵守有關以阿衝突的國際決議,來跟進他對兩國解決方案的支持。 . 拜登在與貝內特會面期間的公開聲明中根本沒有提到兩國解決方案。 然而,白宮在會後發表的一份聲明說,拜登“重申了他的觀點,即通過談判達成的兩國解決方案是實現以巴衝突持久解決的唯一可行途徑。” 聲明稱,拜登“強調了採取措施改善巴勒斯坦人生活並為他們提供更多經濟機會的重要性”。“他還指出,避免採取可能加劇緊張局勢、加劇不公平感並破壞建立信任努力的行動的重要性。” 作為回應,拉馬拉的一名巴勒斯坦官員將這一聲明描述為“積極的”。 他說,巴勒斯坦人希望拜登政府“採取實際步驟,阻止以色列破壞在 1967 年邊界上獨立的巴勒斯坦國的基礎上恢復和平進程和實現兩國解決方案的努力,東耶路撒冷是它的資本。” 另一位官員表示,雖然巴勒斯坦權力機構對拜登對兩國解決方案的承諾表示歡迎,但“美國人需要明白,改善巴勒斯坦人的生活不足以在中東重新啟動有意義的和平進程。” 廣告 他說,如果拜登政府認真對待恢復和平談判和實現兩國解決方案,就必須向以色列政府施加真正的壓力,要求其停止在包括東耶路撒冷在內的所有定居點的建設。 “拜登政府正在談論巴勒斯坦人和以色列人之間建立信任的措施,”這位官員補充說,“但以色列政府的行動和言論正在摧毀重建信任的任何機會。” 2021 年 5 月 25 日,美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯在約旦河西岸城市拉馬拉會見巴勒斯坦總統馬哈茂德·阿巴斯。(圖片來源:ALEX BRANDON/POOL VIA REUTERS) 巴解組織官員瓦塞爾·阿布·尤瑟夫宣布,巴勒斯坦組織的最高執行機構巴解組織執行委員會定於週二在拉馬拉舉行會議,討論巴勒斯坦外交措施以回應以色列政府的政策。 他說,由巴勒斯坦權力機構主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯主持的會議將討論巴勒斯坦在國際刑事法院起訴以色列的“罪行”的努力,包括建造定居點、拆除房屋、殺戮和威脅將巴勒斯坦家庭從他們在Sheikh Jarrah 和 Silwan 的東耶路撒冷社區。 阿布尤瑟夫指出,巴解組織官員還將討論阿巴斯下個月在聯合國大會上的講話。鑑於貝內特最近關於以巴衝突的言論,他呼籲巴勒斯坦權力機構、埃及和約旦之間進行協調。 在訪問白宮前夕,貝內特告訴《紐約時報》,在可預見的未來,與巴勒斯坦人的衝突不會得到解決。他說,他的政府既不會吞併約旦河西岸的任何部分,也不會建立巴勒斯坦國。 貝內特表示,政府將繼續在定居點實施“自然增長”的標準政策,並補充說“耶路撒冷是以色列的首都。它不是其他國家的首都。” 他的聲明引起了巴勒斯坦權力機構的強烈譴責,巴勒斯坦權力機構稱,在與拜登會面之前,總理已經“暴露了他的反和平立場”。 巴勒斯坦作家和政治分析家埃馬德·奧馬爾表示,拜登-貝內特峰會議程的優先事項中沒有巴勒斯坦問題。 奧馬爾說:“由於巴勒斯坦政治體系缺乏選舉產生的合法機構,以及巴勒斯坦民族解放黨和運動的分裂狀態、軟弱和分裂狀態,巴勒斯坦問題正在顯著惡化。” . “目前的以色列政府不能在當地為巴勒斯坦人提供任何政治成就,除了一些經濟措施,特別是在貨物和工人和商人進入領域,無論是來自西岸還是加沙地帶,因為這是一個軟弱的政府,由不同的宗教和政治傾向組成,”奧馬爾告訴約旦報紙Ad-Dustour。 他呼籲巴勒斯坦各派別領導人制定一項全面的國家戰略,“恢復對巴勒斯坦事業的考慮,首先恢復法塔赫統一,然後恢復巴勒斯坦民族團結,並舉行立法、總統和全國委員會選舉,以改造巴勒斯坦。政治體系。” 奧馬爾說,巴勒斯坦團結將使巴勒斯坦人能夠動員國際支持召開國際和平會議,以向以色列施壓,迫使其撤回 1967 年之前的路線。 PA: Biden’s commitment to two-state solution good, but insufficient Biden did not refer to the two-state solution in his public statements during the meeting with Bennett but did so in an official statement issued by the White House after the meeting. By KHALED ABU TOAMEH AUGUST 28, 2021 20:16 Then US vice-president Joe Biden meets with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas in the West Bank city of Ramallah March 9, 2016. (photo credit: REUTERS/DEBBIE HILL/POOL) Advertisement Palestinian officials on Saturday expressed satisfaction with US President Joe Biden’s renewed commitment to the two-state solution, but said that they were disappointed that he did not call for an immediate cessation of settlement construction and Israeli “assaults” on Palestinians. Commenting on Friday’s meeting in Washington between Biden and Prime Minister Naftali Bennett, the officials expressed hope that the president would follow up on his support for the two-state solution by exerting pressure on Israel to abide by international resolutions pertaining to the Israeli-Arab conflict. Biden did not refer to the two-state solution at all in his public statements during the meeting with Bennett. A statement issued by the White House after the meeting, however, said that Biden “reaffirmed his view that a negotiated two-state solution is the only viable path to achieving a lasting resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.” Biden “underscored the importance of steps to improve the lives of Palestinians and support greater economic opportunities for them,” according to the statement. “He also noted the importance of refraining from actions that could exacerbate tensions, contribute to a sense of unfairness, and undermine efforts to build trust.” In response, a Palestinian official in Ramallah described the statement as “positive.” The Palestinians, he said, want the Biden administration to “take real steps to stop Israel from sabotaging efforts to revive the peace process and achieve the two-state solution on the basis of an independent Palestinian state on the 1967 borders, with east Jerusalem as its capital.” Another official said that while the Palestinian Authority welcomed Biden’s commitment to the two-state solution, “the Americans need to understand that improving the lives of Palestinians is not enough to relaunch a meaningful peace process in the Middle East.” Advertisement The Biden administration, he said, must put real pressure on the Israeli government to stop construction in all settlements, including east Jerusalem, if it is serious about resuming the peace negotiations and achieving the two-state solution. “The Biden administration is talking about confidence-building measures between the Palestinians and Israel,” the official added, “but the actions and rhetoric of the Israeli government are destroying any chance of rebuilding confidence.” US Secretary of State Antony Blinken meets with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, in West Bank city of Ramallah, May 25, 2021. (credit: ALEX BRANDON/POOL VIA REUTERS) The PLO Executive Committee, the highest executive body of the Palestinian organization, is scheduled to hold a meeting in Ramallah on Tuesday to discuss Palestinian diplomatic steps in response to the policies of the Israeli government, PLO official Wasel Abu Yusef announced. He said that the meeting, chaired by PA President Mahmoud Abbas, will discuss Palestinian efforts to prosecute Israel at the International Criminal Court for its “crimes,” including settlement construction, house demolitions, killings and threats to evict Palestinian families from their homes in the east Jerusalem neighborhoods of Sheikh Jarrah and Silwan. Abu Yusef pointed out that the PLO officials will also discuss Abbas’s address to the United Nations General Assembly next month. He called for coordination between the PA, Egypt and Jordan in light of Bennett’s recent remarks regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. On the eve of his visit to the White House, Bennett told The New York Times that there would be no resolution of the conflict with the Palestinians for the foreseeable future. He said that his government will neither annex any part of the West Bank nor establish a Palestinian state. Bennett said the government will continue the standard policy of “natural growth” in the settlements, adding that “Jerusalem is the capital of Israel. It is not the capital of other nations.” His statements drew strong condemnation from the PA, which said that the prime minister has “exposed his anti-peace positions” ahead of his meeting with Biden. Emad Omar, a Palestinian writer and political analyst, said that the Palestinian issue was absent from the priorities of the agenda of the Biden-Bennett summit. “The Palestinian issue is witnessing a significant deterioration in light of the absence of elected legitimate institutions for the Palestinian political system, in addition to the state of division and the state of weakness and fragmentation in the Palestinian national liberation parties and movements,” Omar said. “The current Israeli government cannot provide any political achievement to the Palestinians on the ground, except for some economic measures, especially in the field of goods and the entry of workers and merchants, whether from the West Bank or the Gaza Strip, because it is a weak government and consists of different religious and political orientations,” Omar told the Jordanian newspaper Ad-Dustour. He called on the leaders of the Palestinian factions to develop a comprehensive national strategy that “restores consideration to the Palestinian cause, based on restoring Fatah unity first, and then restoring Palestinian national unity and holding legislative, presidential and national council elections to revamp the Palestinian political system.” Omar said that Palestinian unity would allow the Palestinians to mobilize international support for an international peace conference to pressure Israel and force it to withdraw to the pre-1967 lines. 真主黨希望接管黎巴嫩的能源需求 恐怖組織表示,它提供生計並減少痛苦,決定從伊朗進口燃料是為了服務人民並應對他們的挑戰 作者:SETH J. FRANZMAN 2021 年 8 月 28 日 18:23 2021 年 5 月 25 日,真主黨成員在黎巴嫩南部與以色列接壤的邊境附近的 Kfar Kila 舉著紀念抵抗和解放日的旗幟 (照片來源:路透社/AZIZ TAHER) 廣告 真主黨變得越來越強大,比黎巴嫩國更強大,執行其外交政策,派遣戰士代表黎巴嫩在敘利亞發動戰爭,現在希望控制該國的能源需求。這家由伊朗支持的黎巴嫩集團表示,將從8 月中旬開始從伊朗進口汽油和柴油。此後的兩週內,真主黨已經澄清了一些細節。 據伊朗塔斯尼姆新聞和艾哈邁德新聞報導,黎巴嫩真主黨執行委員會副主席謝赫阿里達穆什週五在一次佈道中表示,真主黨將解決黎巴嫩的問題。黎巴嫩正處於金融自由落體狀態,該國正從一場危機陷入另一場危機,通貨膨脹、貨幣疲軟和能源短缺。 這毀了真主黨養活的中產階級——這意味著隨著黎巴嫩的步履蹣跚,真主黨吸納了更多的經濟領域。因為它傳統上靠較貧窮的什葉派人口為生,它的目標是排擠遜尼派和拉攏基督徒,以便在黎巴嫩的宗派議會中獲得足夠的選票。 真主黨已經控制了總統職位,其基督教盟友米歇爾·奧恩(Michel Aoun)安插在那裡,並控制著該國的外交政策。儘管黎巴嫩有軍隊,但真主黨也控制著國防政策,儲備了15 萬枚瞄準以色列的導彈。據達穆什說,現在這個伊斯蘭組織表示它提供了生計並減少了人民的痛苦,並且已經做出從伊朗進口燃料的決定,以服務人民並應對他們的挑戰。 “他補充說,真主黨從伊朗進口燃料的決定並非出於政治動機,也不屬於衝突或政治解決的範圍,”塔斯明指出。“相反,這一決定是出於人類和道德動機,因為真主黨永遠不會容忍黎巴嫩及其人民的圍困和飢餓。” 這就是真主黨的敘述。 真主黨現在希望利用其控制權為經濟發揮作用。這可能意味著讓以色列的死敵騎在燃料進口上,賦予它更大的力量。這意味著真主黨的盟友和合作夥伴將變得富有,人們將排隊等候真主黨提供的天然氣。 這將意味著對伊朗的更多控制。真主黨已經爭辯說,黎巴嫩的經濟必須重新轉向東方:轉向伊朗和中國,它們之間有一項新的 25 年協議。正在接管黎巴嫩的伊斯蘭組織希望為其東道國達成類似的協議。 真主黨表示,進口伊朗能源的決定“也有政治後果,其中最重要的是美國對黎巴嫩人民的圍困失敗——而從伊朗進口燃料意味著打擊美國所有努力迫使黎巴嫩投降。” 廣告 文件照片:2020 年 8 月 4 日黎巴嫩貝魯特爆炸現場冒出濃煙(圖片來源:REUTERS/MOHAMED AZAKIR) 真主黨的敘述還將燃料進口與其對外部勢力的“抵抗”聯繫起來。達穆什指出真主黨在 2015-2017 年是如何與伊斯蘭國作戰的,以及它如何與軍隊合作。 “在這次解放中,也揭示了勝利是抵抗的邏輯——軍國與抵抗的三角形是黃金方程式,”他說。 真主黨也使新政府無法成立。這很可能是導致去年首都貝魯特發生毀滅性爆炸的腐敗背後的原因。沒有人因在硝酸銨港口儲存造成的破壞和死亡而受到指控,這種產品很可能被真主黨用於爆破隧道或其他破壞性活動。這類似於黎巴嫩前總理拉菲克·哈里裡 (Rafic Hariri) 的謀殺案,這是真主黨在 2005 年發生的另一起罪行。 達穆什說,黎巴嫩人正在為缺乏政府付出沉重的代價。 “我們真主黨從一開始就負責組建政府,我們提供了所有設施以盡快實現這一目標,”他聲稱。事實上,正是真主黨阻止了政府的組建,以便從混亂中獲利。 Hezbollah looks to take over Lebanon’s energy needs Terrorist group says it provides livelihoods and reduces suffering, and decision to import fuel from Iran was made to serve the people and meet their challenge By SETH J. FRANTZMAN AUGUST 28, 2021 18:23 Hezbollah members hold flags marking Resistance and Liberation Day, in Kfar Kila near the border with Israel, southern Lebanon, May 25, 2021 (photo credit: REUTERS/AZIZ TAHER) Advertisement Hezbollah has increasingly become more powerful than the State of Lebanon, conducting its foreign policy, sending fighters to wage wars on behalf of Lebanon in Syria, and now looking to have a stranglehold on the country’s energy needs. The Iranian-backed Lebanese group said it would begin to import gasoline and diesel from Iran in mid-August. In the two weeks since then, Hezbollah has clarified some of the details. According to Tasnim News in Iran and Al-Ahd News, Sheikh Ali Dammoush, deputy chairman of the Executive Council of Hezbollah in Lebanon, said on Friday during a sermon that Hezbollah will solve Lebanon’s problems. Lebanon is in a financial free fall and the country is slouching from one crisis to another with inflation, a weak currency and energy scarcity. This has ruined the middle class, from which Hezbollah has fed – meaning that as Lebanon falters, Hezbollah sponges up more parts of the economy. Because it traditionally lived off the poorer Shi’ite population, its goal was to sideline Sunnis and co-opt Christians, in order to grab enough votes in the sectarian parliament of Lebanon. Hezbollah has already achieved control of the presidency, with its Christian ally Michel Aoun installed there, and it controls the country’s foreign policy. Although Lebanon has an army, Hezbollah controls defense policy as well, stockpiling 150,000 missiles aimed at Israel. Now the Islamic group says it provides livelihoods and reduces the suffering of the people, and the decision to import fuel from Iran has been made in order to serve the people and meet their challenges, according to Dammoush. “He added that Hezbollah’s decision to import fuel from Iran was not politically motivated and did not fall within the scope of conflicts or political settlements,” Tasmin notes. “Rather, this decision is motivated by human and moral motives, because Hezbollah will never tolerate the siege and starvation of Lebanon and its people.” This is the Hezbollah narrative. Hezbollah now wants to leverage its control to make a play for the economy. This could mean having Israel’s mortal enemy sitting astride fuel imports, giving it even more power. It would mean Hezbollah allies and partners would be enriched and people would wait in line for Hezbollah-provided gas. And it would mean even more control for Iran. Hezbollah has already argued that Lebanon’s economy must be reoriented toward the East: toward Iran and China, which have a new 25-year deal between them. The Islamist group moving to take over Lebanon wants a similar deal for its host country. Hezbollah says the decision to bring in Iranian energy imports “also has political consequences, the most important of which is the defeat of the siege against the Lebanese people imposed by the United States – and the import of fuel from Iran means hitting all US efforts to force Lebanon to surrender.” Advertisement FILE PHOTO: Smoke rises from the site of an explosion in Beirut, Lebanon August 4, 2020 (credit: REUTERS/MOHAMED AZAKIR) The Hezbollah narrative also connects fuel imports to its “resistance” against outside forces. Dammoush pointed to how Hezbollah had fought ISIS in 2015-2017 and how it works with the army. “In this liberation, it was also revealed that victory is the logic of resistance – and the triangle of army and nation and resistance is the golden equation,” he said. Hezbollah has also made it impossible for a new government to be formed. It was likely behind the corruption that led to the devastating explosion last year in the capital Beirut. No one has been charged for the destruction and death caused by storage at the port of ammonium nitrate, a product likely being used by Hezbollah for blasting tunnels or other destructive activities. This is similar to the murder of Lebanese former prime minister Rafic Hariri, another Hezbollah crime that took place in 2005. Dammoush says the Lebanese are paying a heavy price for the lack of a government. “We at Hezbollah were responsible for the formation of the government from the beginning and we provided all the facilities to make this happen as soon as possible,” he claimed. In fact, it is Hezbollah that has blocked the formation of a government so it can profit from the chaos. 真主黨接受第三批伊朗燃料運往黎巴嫩 真主黨領導人哈桑·納斯魯拉週五表示,為了緩解短缺問題,已接受第三批伊朗燃料運往黎巴嫩。 通過路透 2021 年 8 月 27 日 22:10 2020 年 9 月 10 日,伊朗船隻 Khark 出現在伊朗的一個未公開地點。 (圖片來源:伊朗軍隊/WANA(西亞新聞社)通過路透社) 廣告 黎巴嫩支持的真主黨組織領導人賽義德·哈桑·納斯魯拉週五表示,同意第三艘伊朗燃料船,以緩解該國嚴重的短缺問題。 “我們已經同意開始裝載第三艘船,”納斯魯拉在電視講話中說。 “未來幾天將證明那些對運送燃料的貨物持錯誤態度的人……當第一艘船到達黎巴嫩時,我們的話就會清楚。” 週日,納斯魯拉曾表示,第一艘為黎巴嫩運送伊朗燃料的船隻已經啟航。 黎巴嫩真主黨的敵人警告稱,此次收購將帶來可怕的後果,稱這有可能對一個經濟已經崩潰近兩年的國家實施制裁。 週五早些時候,候任總理納吉布·米卡蒂在接受沙特擁有的 Al Hadath 電視台採訪時表示,他反對任何會損害黎巴嫩利益的行為,但也要求批評伊朗燃料交易的人士提供幫助,以便該國不必訴諸於此給他們。 納斯魯拉將該國的經濟危機歸咎於他所謂的美國經濟圍困,並補充說華盛頓對敘利亞實施的所謂凱撒制裁已經傷害了黎巴嫩。 廣告 納斯魯拉在演講中對美國說:“繼續給予黎巴嫩對伊朗汽油和柴油的豁免……繼續給予黎巴嫩對凱撒的豁免。” 黎巴嫩日益嚴重的燃料短缺本月達到了一個關鍵點,有可能使日常生活陷入停頓。 納斯魯拉還敦促高層政治家停止辯論新內閣的名稱,並緊急組建政府。 “現在是結束這場辯論的時候了,”他說。 黎巴嫩由總理哈桑·迪亞布的看守政府管理,一年前貝魯特港口發生大規模爆炸後,哈桑·迪亞布與內閣一起辭職。 米卡蒂是此後第三位試圖與真主黨盟友米歇爾·奧恩總統組建政府的候任總理。 Hezbollah accepts third shipment of Iranian fuel to Lebanon A third shipment of Iranian fuel to Lebanon has been accepted in order to ease shortages, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah said Friday. By REUTERS AUGUST 27, 2021 22:10 The Iranian ship Khark is seen at an undisclosed location in Iran, September 10,2020. (photo credit: IRANIAN ARMY/WANA (WEST ASIA NEWS AGENCY) VIA REUTERS) Advertisement The leader of Lebanon's Iran-backed Hezbollah group, Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah, said on Friday a third vessel of Iranian fuel was agreed to ease crippling shortages in the country. "We have agreed to start loading a third vessel," Nasrallah said in a televised speech. "The coming days will prove those doubtful about the shipments arriving with fuel wrong … and our words will be clear when the first vessel reaches Lebanon." On Sunday Nasrallah had said the first vessel carrying Iranian fuel for Lebanon had already departed. Hezbollah's foes in Lebanon have warned of dire consequences from the purchase, saying it risked sanctions being imposed on a country whose economy has been in meltdown for nearly two years. Hezbollah leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah gives a televised speech following Tuesday's blast in Beirut's port area, Lebanon August 7, 2020 in this still picture taken from a video (credit: AL-MANAR/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS) Prime Minister-designate Najib Mikati said earlier on Friday in an interview with Saudi-owned Al Hadath television he was against anything that would harm Lebanon's interests but also asked critics of the Iranian fuel deals to provide help so that the country would not have to resort to them. Nasrallah blamed the country's economic crisis on what he called an economic siege by the United States adding that so-called Caesar sanctions imposed by Washington on Syria had harmed Lebanon. Advertisement "Go ahead and give Lebanon an exemption for Iranian gasoline and diesel … go ahead and give Lebanon an exemption from Caesar," Nasrallah said, addressing the United States in his speech. Lebanon's worsening fuel shortages reached a crunch point this month threatening to bring daily life to a halt. Nasrallah also urged top politicians to stop debating names for the new Cabinet and urgently form a government. "It is high time this debate now ends," he said. Lebanon has been run by the caretaker government of Prime Minister Hassan Diab, who resigned with his Cabinet after a massive Beirut port blast ripped through the capital a year ago. Mikati is the third prime minister-designate since then to attempt to form a government with President Michel Aoun, a Hezbollah ally. 巴格達會議被視為地區轉折點 伊拉克鄰里峰會具有廣泛的國際和地區參與度,對伊拉克在地區重新發揮歷史作用寄予厚望。 作者:SETH J. FRANZMAN 2021 年 8 月 28 日 18:18 週六在巴格達舉行的一次獨特會議本應匯集主要地區官員和領導人,包括正在訪問伊拉克首都的法國總統。埃及總統阿卜杜勒·法塔赫·塞西和約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世都表示計劃出席。目前尚不清楚他們是否在早上抵達巴格達,但馬克龍的飛機已在一夜之間飛抵。重要的是,地區媒體認為這是一次重要的會議。約旦的 Al Ghad 報紙稱這是一個轉折點。 一位官員表示,“峰會將地區鄰國和其他國家聚集在一起”,並解釋說“伊拉克在地區扮演著特殊的角色”。另一位官員說,這次會議的目的是“支持伊拉克和伊拉克人民”。“這段時期對伊拉克來說非常重要,因為我們即將在 10 月份舉行選舉。” 馬克龍“想表達他對伊拉克以及政治進程和民主的支持,”國家報的一份報告指出。 當地媒體稱,巴格達將舉辦國際和地區廣泛參與的伊拉克鄰里峰會,並寄希望於伊拉克在該地區重新發揮歷史作用。 “自上週四以來,伊拉克首都巴格達在敏感的政府和外交機構附近增加了安全和軍事部署,恰逢峰會召開,”報告指出。 據伊拉克外交部長福阿德·侯賽因(Fuad Hussein)稱,Al-Ain 媒體的報導指出,已向聯合國安理會五個常任理事國以及伊拉克的鄰國和地區國家發出了邀請。 “兩天前,根據伊拉克向地區和阿拉伯國家元首以及歐洲和西方國家發出的邀請,準備參加地區對話峰會的阿拉伯和外國代表團開始抵達巴格達,而根據洩密和未經證實的消息,參加峰會的大多數國家交替進行,”艾恩說。 週四晚,巴格達會議籌備委員會公佈了確認參會的國家和國際組織,並說明了迄今未公佈與會領導人姓名的原因。顯然,這種秘密性質可能使伊朗、土耳其甚至沙特官員得以會面。海灣地區的官員也可能會來。 “除了阿拉伯聯盟、海灣合作委員會和伊斯蘭合作組織外,參與國還有土耳其、伊朗、沙特阿拉伯、埃及、科威特、約旦、卡塔爾、[阿拉伯聯合酋長國]和法國,”委員會主席、巴格達會議發言人 Nizar Al-Khairallah 在與 Al-Ain News 關注的多家媒體機構進行討論時。 廣告 伊拉克總統巴勒姆·薩利赫在德黑蘭會晤期間與伊朗新總統易卜拉欣·賴西同行(圖片來源:REUTERS) 伊拉克不想成為衝突地區。近年來,它飽受親伊朗民兵、伊斯蘭國和土耳其空襲的困擾。這次會議應該表明巴格達現在可以將這個地區團結起來。這位官員補充說:“會議向關注經濟發展和吸引資金的機構發出了積極的信息。” 艾因說,這次峰會旨在讓伊拉克發揮“建設性和包容性的作用,以解決影響該地區的危機”。 如果伊拉克能夠做到這一點,並將來自伊朗、土耳其和沙特阿拉伯等不同國家以及法國、埃及、約旦和其他主要海灣國家的官員聚集在一起,那麼它將發出前所未有的信息。 它還將顯示美國在該地區的領導地位如何被邊緣化。美國正在離開阿富汗,許多人認為美國正在撤出該地區。近年來,由於親伊朗的民兵以美軍為目標,華盛頓已經離開了伊拉克的許多設施。土耳其一直在轟炸美國支持的敘利亞自衛隊戰士,它擔心美國領導的反伊斯蘭國聯盟不再關心他們。與此同時,伊拉克正在加強——法國也是如此。 Baghdad conference seen as regional turning point Iraq Neighborhood Summit boasts wide international and regional participation and great hopes for the return of Iraq’s historical role in the region. By SETH J. FRANTZMAN AUGUST 28, 2021 18:18 BAGHDAD, IRAQ, earlier this week. Iraq can learn from the processes Israel struggled through to create an open and democratic society. (photo credit: KHALID AL MOUSILY / REUTERS) Advertisement A unique conference in Baghdad held on Saturday is supposed to bring together key regional officials and leaders, including the President of France who is visiting the Iraqi capital. Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi and Jordan’s King Abdullah II have said they plan to attend. It was not clear if they had arrived in Baghdad by morning, but Macron’s plane had flown in overnight. What is important is that the regional press sees this as an important meeting. Jordan’s Al Ghad newspaper called it a turning point. One official said the “summit brings together the regional neighbors as well as other countries,” explaining that “Iraq had a special regional role.” The aim of the meeting is to “support Iraq and Iraqi people,” another official said. “This period is very important for Iraq as we are approaching the elections in October.” Macron “wants to express his support for Iraq and the political process and democracy,” a report at The National notes. Baghdad will host the Iraq Neighborhood Summit with wide international and regional participation, and great hopes for the return of Iraq’s historical role in the region, local media say. “Since last Thursday, the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, has witnessed increased security and military deployment near sensitive government and diplomatic institutions, coinciding with the convening of the summit,” reports note. At Al-Ain media the reports noted that invitations were sent to the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, as well as Iraq’s neighboring and regional countries, according to Iraqi Foreign Minister Fuad Hussein. “Two days ago, Arab and foreign delegations preparing to participate in the regional dialogue summit began arriving in Baghdad, based on invitations made by Iraq to regional and Arab heads of state, as well as European and Western countries, while the level of representation of most of the countries participating in the summit alternates, according to leaks and unconfirmed news,” says Al-Ain. On Thursday evening, the Preparatory Committee for the Baghdad Conference announced the countries and international organizations that had confirmed their participation in the conference, while specifying a reason for not announcing the names of the participating leaders so far. Apparently, the secretive nature may enable Iranian, Turkish and even Saudi officials to meet. Officials from the Gulf may come as well. “The participating countries are Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kuwait, Jordan, Qatar, the [United Arab] Emirates and France, in addition to the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation,” said the head of the committee, spokesman for the Baghdad conference, Nizar Al-Khairallah, during a discussion with a number of media organizations that Al-Ain News followed. Advertisement Iraq's President Barham Salih walks with Iran's new President Ebrahim Raisi during a meeting in Tehran (credit: REUTERS) Iraq does not want to be an area of conflict. It has suffered from pro-Iran militias, ISIS and from Turkish airstrikes in recent years. The conference is supposed to show that Baghdad can now bring the region together. The official added, “The conference sends positive messages to the institutions concerned with economic development and attracting capital.” The summit aims to give Iraq a “constructive and inclusive role to address the crises afflicting the region,” Al-Ain says. If Iraq is able to pull this off and bring together officials from such disparate countries as Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia, as well as France, Egypt, Jordan and other key Gulf states, then it will be sending an unprecedented message. It will also show how US leadership in the region has been sidelined. America is leaving Afghanistan, and many see the US as withdrawing from the region. Washington has left many facilities in Iraq in recent years as pro-Iran militias targeted US forces. Turkey has been bombing US-backed SDF fighters in Syria and it is concerned that the US-led anti-ISIS coalition no longer cares about them. Iraq, meanwhile, is stepping up – and so is France. 關於改革以色列的猶太食品監管必須說些什麼? 專家應決定這些改革是否會改善 kashrut 服務和標準 作者:SHLOMO M. BRODY 2021 年 8 月 26 日 20:10 以色列宗教事務部長對該國的猶太食品監管進行了深遠的改革。 在目前的系統中,所有食品要獲得猶太潔食認證,都需要獲得首席拉比的批准印章。根據擬議的改革,將允許多個拉比組織在全國范圍內提供監督服務,首席拉比將作為這些獨立機構的政府監管機構。 該計劃得到了 Tzohar 拉比組織的支持,該組織認為競爭將降低成本並提高專業性,從而引導更多餐館選擇以色列消費者信任的監管。反過來,首席拉比認為新系統會混淆消費者並破壞猶太食品認證。 專家們應該決定這些改革是否會改善kashrut 服務和標準。然而,重要的是要了解去中心化的系統(在美國和其他地方已經發現)對於 kosher 監督來說是完全可以接受的。要了解原因,首先需要探索為什麼需要 kashrut 監督。 作為實施體罰和其他懲罰的條件,聖經以要求兩名見證人而著稱。相比之下,猶太法律在儀式事項以及相關的誡命和禁令中接受單一證人的證明。 例如,聖經指出,祭司對食用普通公民私下屠宰的動物的肉沒有任何顧慮。同樣,與月經和家庭純潔有關的法律依賴於個別女性的陳述。《塔木德》斷言,猶太法律信任虔誠的猶太人。否則,正如一些中世紀評論家所指出的,否則就不可能維持任何公共生活。在朋友家吃食物,甚至是自己家人準備的食物,都需要相信其他人會嚴格遵守法律。 事實上,猶太法律通常信任虔誠的猶太人,即使在此人從他們的證明中獲得經濟利益的情況下也是如此。傳統上,我們相信儀式屠宰者會檢查動物的肺部並確定它是 kosher 的,即使他隨後會通過出售食物而受益。因此,從歷史上看,猶太人擁有的農場、田地或旅館沒有外部猶太教監督。如果主人對他們的儀式很虔誠和一絲不苟,那就可以相信他們的話。 由於多種原因,這種安排不再可能。首先,當今參與食品生產的許多猶太人(當然也包括非猶太人)個人並沒有承諾遵守這些法律。塔木德並沒有給予那些不遵守這些法律的人同等程度的信任;即使是出於誠實的意圖,也有人擔心他們不會認真遵守規定的標準。Kashrut 食品監管通過確保有人向他們提供法律指導並監督他們遵守法律,從而緩解了其中的一些擔憂。 事實上,即使在塔木德時代,聖人也限制從敘利亞地區購買葡萄酒、奶酪和其他產品,因為他們認為當地居民在遵守這些法律方面不夠講究。更重要的是,頒布了一整套名為 demai 的法律來處理購買農產品的問題,因為大批人沒有充分承諾採取所有必要的十分之一。聖人明白,建立在信任基礎上的系統不能圍繞那些缺乏詳細法律知識或承諾的人建立。 事實上,有時即使是忠實於飲食法的人也會由於其複雜性而犯錯誤。其他人則因經濟壓力而走非法捷徑。 幾個世紀以來,這促進了對肉類生產的更嚴格審查。一些拉比建議屠宰者需要認證並定期檢查他們的工作刀。反過來,許多中世紀社區指定屠宰場並規範這些職位,以排除任何出售非猶太肉類的經濟動機。 有時,人們也會對其他食物進行更嚴格的審查。在 16 世紀,布拉格的馬哈拉爾表示,葡萄酒生產也應該這樣做。在同一世紀,管理波蘭和立陶宛儀式生活的四地委員會頒布法令,所有奶酪和黃油的鄉村生產商都必須得到當地拉比法院院長的認證,否則人們不應購買他們的產品. 當代食品工業具有歷史上學者們關注基於信任的系統的所有缺陷:食品生產中涉及極其複雜的技術,需要復雜的工業和猶太法律知識;完全融入食品生產線的無宗教信仰的猶太人和外邦人;以及一個巨大的金融市場,它創造了欺詐的誘惑。 Kosher 食品監管旨在幫助緩解這些擔憂,並為消費者提供一定程度的安慰,與前幾代人不同,他們與提供食品的人幾乎沒有接觸。 然而,最終,Kosher 監管者和食品生產商必須建立自己的信任關係,以使這種安排有效、經濟和可靠。 後三個特徵通常不是我們在自由市場經濟中適用於 a) 由政府管理和 b) 在市場上具有壟斷地位的機構的術語。儘管如此,首席拉比堅持認為,在猶太國家管理整個猶太教監督領域是最有資格的。 這種說法受到廣泛使用(昂貴的)“補充”猶太監督證書的破壞,這些證書由公眾信任度更高的私人機構(有時稱為 Badatzim)頒發,以及幾年前國家審計長發布的嚴厲報告強調了低效率和違規行為。在首席拉比的系統中。 一方面,我希望通過推進改革,大大完善製度。然而,很明顯,猶太法律當然沒有授權一個中央機構來管理國家的猶太食品生產。 What must be said about reforming Israel’s kosher food supervision? Experts should decide if these reforms will improve kashrut service and standards By SHLOMO M. BRODY AUGUST 26, 2021 20:10 Israel’s religious affairs minister has introduced far-reaching reforms in the country’s kosher food supervision. In the current system, all food, to receive kosher certification, requires the stamp of approval from the Chief Rabbinate. Under the proposed reform, multiple rabbinic organizations will be allowed to provide nationwide supervision services, with the Chief Rabbinate serving as a government regulator of these independent bodies. The plan has received the support of the Tzohar rabbinic organization, which argues that competition will lower costs and increase professionalism, thereby leading more eateries to select supervision that Israeli consumers will trust. The Chief Rabbinate, in turn, has argued that the new system will confuse consumers and undermine kosher food certification. Experts should decide if these reforms will improve kashrut service and standards. Yet it’s important to understand that a decentralized system (as already found in the US and elsewhere) is perfectly acceptable for kosher supervision. To understand why, it pays to explore why kashrut supervision is required in the first place. AS A condition for imposing corporal punishment and other penalties, the Bible famously requires two witnesses. In contrast, Jewish law accepts the attestations of a single witness in ritual matters as well as related commandments and prohibitions. The Bible indicates, for example, that priests had no qualms about consuming meat from animals privately slaughtered by average citizens. Similarly, the laws relating to menstruation and family purity rely on the statements of individual women. Jewish law, the Talmud asserts, places trust in pious Jews. Otherwise, as some medieval commentators noted, it would otherwise be impossible to maintain any communal life. Eating food at a friend’s house or even that prepared by your own family members requires trusting that others will follows the laws scrupulously. In fact, Jewish law generally trusts pious Jews even in cases when the person gains financially from their attestations. Classically, we trust a ritual slaughterer who examines the lungs of an animal and determines that it is kosher, even though he will subsequently benefit by selling the food. Thus, historically, there was no outside kosher supervision on Jewish-owned farms, field or inns. If the owner was pious and meticulous about their ritual observance, one could rely on their word. BEEF BOURGUIGNON at Dubai’s Armani/Kaf kosher restaurant. (credit: LINDA GRADSTEIN) Advertisement For several reasons, this arrangement is no longer possible. Firstly, many Jews (and certainly non-Jews) involved in food production today are not personally committed to observing these laws. The Talmud does not grant the same level of trust to those who are not scrupulous in these laws; even with honest intentions, there is concern that they will not carefully uphold the required standards. Kashrut food supervision eases some of these worries by ensuring that someone provides them with guidance on the laws and generally oversees that they abide by them. Indeed, even during Talmudic times, the Sages imposed limits on purchasing wine, cheese and other products from the Syrian region, because they deemed the local residents as insufficiently fastidious in the observance of these laws. More significantly, a whole category of law known as demai was enacted to deal with purchasing produce, because large groups of people were insufficiently committed to taking all of the necessary tithes. The Sages understood that a system based on trust cannot be built around those who lack knowledge of, or commitment to, the detailed laws. In truth, there are times where even pious individuals committed to dietary laws make mistakes because of their complexities. Others take illicit shortcuts because of their financial pressures. Over the centuries, this contributed to greater scrutiny over the production of meat. Some rabbis suggested slaughterers require certification and have their work knives regularly inspected. Many medieval communities, in turn, appointed slaughters and regulated these positions to preclude any financial incentive to sell nonkosher meat. Occasionally, one also sees greater scrutiny for other foods. In the 16th century, the Maharal of Prague indicated that this should be done for wine production as well. In the same century, the Council of Four Lands which governed ritual life in Poland and Lithuania issued a decree that all village producers of cheese and butter must be certified as trustworthy by the local rabbinical court head, and that otherwise people should not buy their products. THE CONTEMPORARY food industry has all of the pitfalls that historically concerned scholars with a trust-based system: incredibly complex technologies involved in food production that require intricate knowledge of both the industry and Jewish law; nonreligious Jews and gentiles fully integrated into the line of food production; and a huge financial market that creates temptations of fraud. Kosher food supervision is meant to help alleviate those concerns and provide a level of comfort to consumers, who, unlike in previous generations, have little to no contact with those providing them with their food. Ultimately, however, the kosher supervisors and the food producers must build their own trusting relationship to make this arrangement efficient, economical and reliable. Those last three characteristics are not usually the terms that we apply in free-market economies for bodies that a) are run by the government and b) have monopolies on the market. The Chief Rabbinate, nonetheless, insists that it is best qualified to run the entire field of kosher supervision in the Jewish state. This claim is undermined by the widespread use of (costly) “supplementary” kosher supervision certificates issued by private agencies that have greater public trust (sometimes called Badatzim) and by a scathing report issued several years ago by the state comptroller that highlighted inefficiencies and irregularities in the Chief Rabbinate’s system. I, for one, hope that the push for reform will greatly improve the system. It remains clear, however, that Jewish law certainly does not mandate a centralized body to govern the nation’s kosher food production. The writer is co-dean of the Tikvah Online Academy, a postdoctorate fellow at Bar-Ilan University Law School, and the award-winning author of A Guide to the Complex: Contemporary Halakhic Debates. 我們絕不能讓拜登分裂耶路撒冷 - 意見 拜登政府一直在公開和私下推動在耶路撒冷開設美國領事館,旨在為巴勒斯坦人服務。 作者:邁克爾·弗倫德 2021 年 8 月 26 日 17:57 在冠狀病毒捲土重來以及與哈馬斯在加沙的緊張局勢加劇之際,最近一個重要且引起高度共鳴的問題在很大程度上被忽視了:耶路撒冷作為以色列不可分割的首都的未來。 拜登政府表現出非凡的外交天真,一直在公開和私下推動在耶路撒冷開設美國領事館,旨在為巴勒斯坦人服務。 如果允許這樣的舉動發生,不僅會是對以色列的一記耳光,而且還會助長被誤導的巴勒斯坦人在該市站穩腳跟的希望,從而助長更大的極端主義。 近四年前的2017年12月6日,特朗普政府正式承認耶路撒冷為猶太國家的首都,邁出了承認歷史、現實和命運的歷史性一步。 在美國駐耶路撒冷大使館於 2018 年 5 月 14 日正式落成後,負責與我們的鄰居打交道的單獨的美國駐該市領事館被關閉,隨後併入大使館,現在是巴勒斯坦事務處。 2018 年 5 月 14 日,伊万卡·特朗普在美國駐耶路撒冷大使館正式開幕時滿臉笑容(圖片來源:MARC ISRAEL SELLEM) 這是正確且合乎邏輯的做法。畢竟,在以色列領土上設立一個獨立的美國外交辦公室與巴勒斯坦權力機構等外國實體打交道是沒有意義的。因此,將其歸入大使館是明智、適當且具有成本效益的做法。 但現在拜登政府希望在這一舉措上倒轉時間,表明對分裂聖城持開放態度。 5 月 25 日,美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯訪問拉馬拉時,向巴勒斯坦主席馬哈茂德·阿巴斯通報了重新開放美國駐耶路撒冷領事館的決定,該領事館將處理巴勒斯坦事務。 這對某些人來說似乎微不足道,但將其視為如此將是一個嚴重的錯誤。確實,符號很重要,尤其是在外交和國際事務中,毫無疑問,美國在耶路撒冷設立新的針對巴勒斯坦人的領事館意味著什麼。 正如前耶路撒冷市長尼爾·巴爾卡特最近所說,“在耶路撒冷設立巴勒斯坦領事館的行為意味著承認耶路撒冷為巴勒斯坦的首都。政府對此事的同意是災難性的。我打算積極對抗這個危險的決定。” 為了避免對巴勒斯坦人如何解釋提議的舉動產生任何疑問,請考慮以下內容。 在布林肯宣布這一消息後的第二天,法塔赫中央委員會成員侯賽因·謝赫告訴巴勒斯坦電視台,美國的宣布清楚地表明,東耶路撒冷是“被佔領的巴勒斯坦領土”的一部分。 同樣,正如 Al-Monitor 網站 6 月 1 日報導的那樣,巴勒斯坦外交部政治顧問 Ahmad al-Deek 堅持認為,“該決定確認東耶路撒冷是巴勒斯坦被佔領土的一部分,是巴勒斯坦被佔領土的首都。巴勒斯坦,並將繼續進行最終談判。” 因此,拜登政府成功地重新點燃了巴勒斯坦人的幻想,即他們將獲得對耶路撒冷的控制權,這種幻想只會助長更大的極端主義和拒絕主義。 幸運的是,根據國際法,華盛頓不能單方面採取這樣的措施。這樣做需要得到以色列的同意。 正如前外交部法律顧問艾倫貝克大使在耶路撒冷公共事務中心上個月發表的一篇富有洞察力的論文中所解釋的那樣,“宣布的重新開放前總領事館的意圖引發了複雜的法律和政治問題。” 貝克援引 1963 年《維也納領事關係公約》的條款指出,“領事館或構成領館一部分的任何其他辦事處,只能在接受國同意的情況下設立在該國領土內。 “顯然,”他總結道,“重新開放前駐耶路撒冷領事館,其管轄範圍旨在涵蓋與巴勒斯坦領導人、巴勒斯坦政府機構和領土上的巴勒斯坦居民的關係,這些領土均不受以色列主權管轄,將在政治和法律上存在問題。” 前美國駐以色列大使大衛弗里德曼提出了同樣令人信服的反對拜登政府計劃的理由。在 5 月份發表在美國主要政治新聞網站 The Hill 的一篇文章中,他寫道:“美國駐耶路撒冷領事館對外國機構的訪問顯然違反了美國法律。” 他說,這樣的行為“將是非法和不明智的”。 弗里德曼正確地指出,“耶路撒冷領事館的所在地將被視為未來大使館的實際所在地。對於繼續違反美國法律和普遍道德原則向恐怖分子付錢的巴勒斯坦領導人來說,這將是一份巨大且毫無根據的禮物,否則他們就沒有表現出該地區無威脅和平共處所需的任何特徵。” 這樣做將“闡明當地的事實,將保證未來和平談判的失敗。” 出於所有這些原因,以色列必須在這個問題上堅持立場,拒絕華盛頓提出的在耶路撒冷為巴勒斯坦人單獨開設領事館的任何要求。我們不能也絕不能同意讓拜登先生為分裂耶路撒冷奠定基礎。 世界上沒有其他國家甚至會考慮同意這樣的步驟,這只會破壞我們對自己資本的合法要求的國際合法性。 以色列也不應該。 這位作家在本傑明·內塔尼亞胡總理的第一個任期內擔任副通訊主任。 We must not let Biden divide Jerusalem - opinion The Biden administration has been pushing both publicly and privately to open a US consulate in Jerusalem aimed at serving the Palestinians. By MICHAEL FREUND AUGUST 26, 2021 17:57 US Secretary of State Antony Blinken meets with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in Ramallah (photo credit: MAJDI MOHAMMED/POOL VIA REUTERS) Advertisement Amid the coronavirus resurgence and mounting tensions with Hamas in Gaza, an important and highly resonant issue has been largely overlooked of late: the future of Jerusalem as Israel’s undivided capital. Demonstrating remarkable diplomatic naivete, the Biden administration has been pushing both publicly and privately to open a US consulate in Jerusalem aimed at serving the Palestinians. Such a move, if allowed to take place, would not only be a slap in the face to Israel, but it would serve to encourage greater extremism by stoking misguided Palestinian hopes of obtaining a foothold in the city. Nearly four years ago, on December 6, 2017, the Trump administration took the historic step of acknowledging history, reality and destiny when it granted official US recognition to Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish state. After the US Embassy in Jerusalem was formally inaugurated on May 14, 2018, the separate American consulate in the city which was tasked with dealing with our neighbors was closed and subsequently absorbed into the embassy where it is now the Palestinian Affairs Unit. Ivanka Trump is all smiles at the official opening of the US Embassy in Jerusalem, May 14, 2018 (credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM) This was the proper and logical thing to do. After all, it made no sense to have a free-standing American diplomatic office on Israeli soil dealing with a foreign entity such as the Palestinian Authority. Hence, subsuming it under the auspices of the embassy was the sensible, appropriate and cost-effective thing to do. But now the Biden administration wants to turn back the clock on this move, signaling an openness to dividing the Holy City. Advertisement On May 25, when US Secretary of State Antony Blinken visited Ramallah, he informed Palestinian Chairman Mahmoud Abbas of the decision to reopen an American consulate in Jerusalem that would handle Palestinian matters. This might seem trivial to some, but to view it as such would be a grave mistake. Indeed, symbols matter, especially in diplomacy and international affairs, and there can be no doubt what a new US consulate in Jerusalem aimed at the Palestinians would signify. As Nir Barkat, the former mayor of Jerusalem, said recently, “The act of establishing a Palestinian consulate in Jerusalem means recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine. The administration’s consent on this matter is disastrous. I intend to aggressively fight this dangerous decision.” And lest there be any doubt as to how the Palestinians are interpreting the proposed move, consider the following. On the day following Blinken’s announcement, Hussein al-Sheikh, a member of the Fatah Central Committee, told Palestine TV that the US announcement was a clear message that eastern Jerusalem is part of the “occupied Palestinian territories.” Similarly, as the Al-Monitor website reported on June 1, Ahmad al-Deek, political adviser in the Palestinian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, insisted that, “the decision confirms that east Jerusalem is part of the occupied Palestinian territory and is the capital of Palestine and will remain subject to final negotiations.” Consequently, the Biden administration has succeeded in reigniting the Palestinian illusion that they will gain control over Jerusalem, a fantasy that only serves to feed greater extremism and rejectionism. Fortunately, due to international law, Washington cannot unilaterally undertake such a measure. Doing so would require Israel’s consent. As Ambassador Alan Baker, the former legal adviser of the Foreign Ministry, explained in an insightful paper published by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs last month, the “declared intention to reopen the former consulate general raises complex legal and political questions.” Citing the terms of the 1963 Vienna Convention of Consular Relations, Baker points out that, “consular posts, or any other offices forming part of a consular post, may only be established in the territory of the receiving state with that state’s consent. “Clearly,” he concludes, “reopening the former consulate in Jerusalem, the jurisdiction of which would be intended to cover relations with the Palestinian leadership, Palestinian governmental bodies, and Palestinian residents of the territories, none of which are subject to Israel’s sovereignty, would be politically and legally problematic.” An equally compelling case against the Biden administration’s plan was made by former US ambassador to Israel David Friedman. In an article back in May in The Hill, a major American political news website, he wrote that, “A US consulate in Jerusalem to a foreign body clearly runs afoul of American law.” Such an act, he said, “would be illegal and unwise.” Friedman rightly points out that, “the location of the consulate in Jerusalem will be perceived as a de facto location of a future embassy. That would be a huge and unwarranted gift to the Palestinian leadership who continue to pay terrorists in violation of American law and universal principles of morality, and who otherwise show none of the attributes necessary for non-threatening peaceful coexistence within the region.” Doing so would “set forth facts on the ground that will guarantee the failure of future peace negotiations.” For all of these reasons, Israel must stand firm on this issue and reject any request by Washington to open a separate consulate for Palestinians in Jerusalem. We cannot and must not agree to allow Mr. Biden to lay the groundwork for dividing Jerusalem. No other country in the world would even consider consenting to such a step, which would only undermine the international legitimacy of our rightful claim to our own capital. And neither should Israel. The writer served as deputy communications director under prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu during his first term of office.

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