*第三季*【EP. 75】#362 經濟學人新聞評論【瑞士公投、伊斯蘭/穆斯林婦女傳統服飾、瑞士人民黨 (SVP/UDC)、Made in China (2025)、基本薪資、美國零售業巨頭:好市多/沃爾瑪/亞馬遜、美國布蘭戴斯大學 (Brandeis University)】

每日一經濟學人 LEON x The Economist
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🔴Monday March 8th 2021 🔵2021年3月8日星期一 1️⃣Switzerland: no more burqa and niqab 瑞士:禁止伊斯蘭女性的傳統服飾 Switzerland will ban the wearing of religious face coverings in public, following a controversial referendum yesterday. The ban is seen as being directed at the coverings worn by Muslim women, including the burqa and niqab. It was proposed by the right-wing Swiss People’s Party, which campaigned using slogans such as “stop radical Islam”. 繼昨天頗具爭議的瑞士公民投票之後,瑞士將禁止在公共場合穿戴宗教用的面部覆蓋衣物。該禁令被視為針對 (伊斯蘭) 穆斯林婦女所穿的傳統服飾,包含波卡 (Burqa) 以及尼卡布 (Niqab)。該公投案由瑞士的右翼政黨“瑞士人民黨 (Swiss People’s Party)”所提出,而該黨以“遏止激進的伊斯蘭教”等口號為競選主軸。 2️⃣China’s exports: more now than ever before… 中國出口:比以往多更多… Customs data showed that China’s exports surged in the first two months of the year—61% higher than the same period in 2020 in dollar terms. The figures are distorted by both the annual lunar new year holiday and the covid-19 pandemic. But the customs reported rebounding demand in the European Union and America, thanks partly to fiscal-stimulus measures. 海關數據顯示,中國在今年的前兩個月出口激增 一 以美元計算,比 2020年同期增長 61%。每年的農曆新年假期以及新冠疫情大流行都會使這些數額失真。但是海關的報告指稱,部分歸因於財政刺激措施,使得歐盟和美國的需求回升。 3️⃣$15 or bust: American retailers boost wages 不成功,便成仁:美國零售商調漲薪資 Democrats in the Senate abandoned their recent attempt to raise the national minimum wage to $15 an hour. Some workers are seeing healthier pay-cheques anyway. Today Lidl will raise the hourly minimum wage in its ten supermarkets on New York’s Long Island to $16.50 from $15. Costco, America’s fourth-largest retailer, lifted its country-wide minimum wage to $16 an hour. Walmart will keep its minimum wage at $11 but raise pay for 425,000 employees. Pay bumps by bigger employers can boost wages within regional labour markets, albeit with smaller effects than government-mandated minimum wage increases. Economists from the University of California, Berkeley and Brandeis University found that in areas where the e-commerce giant maintains a heavy presence, Amazon’s decision to raise its base pay to $15 an hour in 2018 helped lift the wages offered by other firms. (The boost outweighed the effect of dampened employment.) This will offer little comfort to workers in other places and sectors. 美國參議院民主黨籍議員放棄了最近想要提高全美國基本薪資至每小時 15美元的打算。不過無論如何,部分勞工仍期待更為健全的勞動給付。在今天,Lidl (一家在全球擁有超過八千家分店的德國連鎖超市品牌) 將調漲旗下十間在紐約長島超市之每小時最低薪資,從 15美元至 16.5美元。美國第四大零售商好市多 (Costco) 則將其 (在美國) 國內的最低薪資提高到每小時 16美元。沃爾瑪 (Walmart,世界上最大的零售商) 將維持 11美元為其最低薪資,但 (至少) 將為 425,000名員工加薪。儘管比政府直接下令規定最低薪資來得影響小,但由大型雇主/企業帶頭的加薪 (趨勢/風潮) 仍可以刺激區域勞動市場的薪資成長。美國加州大學柏克萊分校 (UC Berkeley) 與布蘭戴斯大學 (Brandeis University,美國第一所由猶太人成立、著重人文教育、非隸屬於任何教派的私立研究型大學) 的經濟學者發現,在電子商務巨擘亞馬遜 (Amazon,全球最大的線上零售商之一) 有著廣大影響力的地區,其於 2018年調漲基本薪資至每小時 15美元之決定帶動了其他公司行號的加薪 (而這波成長甚至超過了萎靡就業率的影響)。這將給其他地方和部門的勞工們帶來一點點的安慰。

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