[S2-E24] Treating COVID-19 at home: Care tips for you and others

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Treating COVID-19 at home: Care tips for you and others

Providing care at home for a person sick with COVID-19? Or caring for yourself at home? Understand when emergency care is needed and what you can do to prevent the spread of infection.

If you have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and you're caring for yourself at home or you're caring for a loved one with COVID-19 at home, you might have questions. How do you know when emergency care is needed? How long is isolation necessary? What can you do to prevent the spread of germs? How can you support a sick loved one and manage your stress? Here's what you need to know.

At-home treatment. Most people who become sick with COVID-19 will only experience mild illness and can recover at home. Symptoms might last a few days, and people who have the virus might feel better in about a week. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and includes rest, fluid intake and pain relievers.

However, older adults and people of any age with existing medical conditions should call their doctor as soon as symptoms start. These factors put people at greater risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19.

Follow the doctor's recommendations about care and home isolation for yourself or your loved one. Talk to the doctor if you have any questions about treatments. Help the sick person get groceries and any medications and, if needed, take care of his or her pet.

It's also important to consider how caring for a sick person might affect your health. If you are older or have an existing medical condition, such as heart or lung disease or diabetes, you may be at higher risk of serious illness with COVID-19. You might consider isolating yourself from the sick person and finding another person to provide care.

Emergency warning signs. Carefully monitor yourself or your loved one for worsening symptoms. If symptoms appear to be getting worse, call the doctor.

The doctor might recommend use of a home pulse oximeter, especially if the ill person has risk factors for severe illness with COVID-19 and COVID-19 symptoms. A pulse oximeter is a plastic clip that attaches to a finger. The device can help check breathing by measuring how much oxygen is in the blood. A reading of less than 92% might increase the need for hospitalization. If the doctor recommends a pulse oximeter, make sure you understand how to use the device properly and when a reading should prompt a call to the doctor.

If you or the person with COVID-19 experiences emergency warning signs, medical attention is needed immediately. Call 911 or your local emergency number if the sick person can't be woken up or you notice any emergency signs, including:

Trouble breathing, Persistent chest pain or pressure, New confusion, Bluish lips or face, Inability to stay awake, Pale, gray or blue-colored skin, lips or nail beds — depending on skin tone

Protecting others if you're ill. If you're ill with COVID-19, you can help prevent the spread of infection with the COVID-19 virus.

Stay home from work, school and public areas unless it's to get medical care. Avoid using public transportation, ride-sharing services or taxis. Stay isolated in one room, away from your family and other people, as much as possible. This includes eating in your room. Open windows to keep air circulating. Use a separate bathroom, if possible. Avoid shared space in your home as much as possible. When using shared spaces, limit your movements. Keep your kitchen and other shared spaces well ventilated. Stay at least 6 feet (2 meters) away from your family members.
Clean often-touched surfaces in your separate room and bathroom, such as doorknobs, light switches, electronics and counters, every day. Avoid sharing personal household items, such as dishes, towels, bedding and electronics.
Wear a face mask when near others. Change the face mask each day. If wearing a face mask isn't possible, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or elbow when coughing or sneezing. Afterward, throw away the tissue or wash the handkerchief. Frequently wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Protecting yourself while caring for someone with COVID-19 To protect yourself while caring for someone with COVID-19, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend:
Keep your hands clean and away from your face. Frequently wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after being in close contact or in the same room as the sick person. If soap and water aren't available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.
Wear a face mask. If you need to be in the same room with the person who is ill and he or she isn't able to wear a face mask, wear a face mask. Stay at least 6 feet (2 meters) away from the ill person. Don't touch or handle your mask while you are using it. If your mask gets wet or dirty, replace it with a clean, dry mask. Throw away the used mask and wash your hands.
Clean your home frequently. Every day, use household cleaning sprays or wipes to clean surfaces that are often touched, including counters, tabletops and doorknobs. Avoid cleaning the sick person's separate room and bathroom. Set aside bedding and utensils for the sick person only to use.
Be careful with laundry. Don't shake dirty laundry. Use regular detergent to wash the sick person's laundry. Use the warmest setting you can. Wash your hands after putting clothes in the dryer. Thoroughly dry clothes. If you are handling clothing that has been soiled by the sick person, wear disposable gloves and keep the items away from your body. Wash your hands after removing the gloves. Place dirty gloves and masks in a waste bin with a lid in the sick person's room. Clean and disinfect clothes hampers and wash your hands afterward.
Be careful with dishes. Wear gloves when handling dishes, cups or utensils used by the sick person. Wash the items with soap and hot water or in the dishwasher. Clean your hands after taking off the gloves or handling used items.
Avoid direct contact with the sick person's bodily fluids. Wear disposable gloves and a face mask when providing oral and respiratory care and when handling stool, urine or other waste. Wash your hands before and after removing your gloves and mask. Don't reuse your mask or gloves.
Avoid having unnecessary visitors in your home. Don't allow visitors until the sick person has completely recovered and has no signs or symptoms of COVID-19.
Ending isolation or quarantine. Isolation is used to separate people with the COVID-19 virus from those who aren't sick. Talk to the doctor about when to end home isolation if you have a weakened immune system. If you think or know you had COVID-19 and had symptoms, the CDC recommends that it's OK to be around others after:

At least 5 days have passed since your symptoms started. Wear a mask when you're around others for 5 more days. If you don't have a fever and want to get tested after at least 5 days, you may do so. But if your test is positive, stay at home for 5 more days. At least 24 hours have passed with no fever without the use of fever-reducing medicine. Other symptoms are improving — loss of taste and smell might last for weeks or months after recovery but shouldn't delay ending isolation. These recommendations may differ if you have had severe COVID-19 or have a weakened immune system.

Most people don't need testing to decide when they can be around others. If you're a healthcare worker with COVID-19, the time you can return to work may vary. If you've been exposed to someone with COVID-19 If you are caring for someone with COVID-19 and you aren’t fully vaccinated, the CDC recommends that you get tested at least 5 days after being exposed. The CDC also recommends that you quarantine for 5 days after your last contact with the sick person and watch for symptoms of COVID-19. After that, wear a mask for 5 days. If you can't quarantine, wear a mask for 10 days. Try to stay away from people in your household.

If you have symptoms, self-isolate. However, if you’ve been caring for someone with COVID-19, you don’t need to stay home if: You’ve gotten all recommended vaccine doses, including boosters and additional primary shots. You’ve had COVID-19 within the last three months, recovered and remain without symptoms of COVID-19. But wear a mask when you're around other people for 10 days.

If you've received the recommended vaccine doses but not a booster, stay home for 5 days. Get tested after at least 5 days. And wear a mask for 5 more days. If you're not able to stay home, wear a mask for 10 days.

Get tested at least 5 days after the exposure, even if you don’t have symptoms. It’s also recommended that you wear a mask in public for 10 days following the exposure.

Coping with caregiving stress. As you or your loved one recover, seek emotional support. Stay connected to others through texts, phone calls or videoconferences. Share your concerns. Avoid too much COVID-19 news. Rest and focus on enjoyable activities, such as reading, watching movies or playing online games.

As you take care of a loved one who is ill with COVID-19, you might feel stressed too. You might worry about your health and the health of the sick person. This can affect your ability to eat, sleep and concentrate, as well as worsen chroni